14th May – Deaths & Events in Northern Ireland Troubles

Key Events & Deaths on this day in Northern Ireland Troubles

14th May

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Sunday 14 May 1972

Martha Campbell

A 13 year old Catholic girl was shot dead by Loyalist paramilitaries in Ballymurphy, Belfast.

Monday 14 May 1973

Martin McGuinness was released from prison in the Republic of Ireland having served a six months sentence.

Tuesday 14 May 1974

Beginning of the Ulster Workers Council Strike

There was a debate in the Northern Ireland Assembly on a motion condemning power-sharing and the Council of Ireland. The motion was defeated by 44 votes to 28. At 6.00pm, following the conclusion of the Assembly debate, Harry Murray announced to a group of journalists that a general strike was to start the following day.

The organisation named as being responsible for calling the strike was the Ulster Workers’ Council (UWC). The action was to become known as the UWC Strike. The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Sinn Féin (SF) were declared legal following the passing of legislation at Westminster.

Saturday 14 May 1977

Robert Nairac.jpg

Robert Nairac (29), a member of the British Army, was abducted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside the Three Step Inn, near Forkhill, County Armagh.

His body was never recovered and he was presumed dead. He is listed as one of the ‘disappeared’.

[The IRA later stated that they had interrogated and killed a Special Air Service (SAS) officer. Nairac was posthumously awarded the George Cross.]

See Robert Nairac

Thursday 14 May 1981

Brendan McLaughlin, an Irish Republican Army (IRA) prisoner in the Maze Prison, joined the hunger strike to replace Francis Hughes who had died on 12 May 1981.

See Hungry Strike

[McLaughlin was taken off the strike on 26 May 1981 when he suffered a perforated ulcer and internal bleeding.]

Wednesday 14 May 1986

The pressure group ‘Campaign for Equal Citizenship‘ was established at a meeting in Belfast. The CEC argued that British political parties, such as the Labour and Conservative, should organise and stand for election in Northern Ireland. The CEC was also in favour of the full administrative integration of Northern Ireland into the United Kingdom

Saturday 14 May 1994

David Wilson (27), a British Army (BA) soldier, was killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during a bomb attack on a permanent Vehicle Checkpoint, Castleblaney Road, Keady, County Armagh.

Sunday 14 May 1995

The Sunday Business Post (a Dublin based newspaper) published a report of an interview with Peter Temple-Morris, then co-chairman of the British-Irish Interparliamentary Body. He expressed the view that Republican frustration with the lack of progress on all-party talks might lead to an end of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire.

Wednesday 14 May 1997

Gunmen tried to kill a taxi driver in Milford village, County Armagh.

The attempt failed when the gun jammed. The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) was believed to be responsible for the attack.

Betty Boothroyd, then Speaker of the House of Commons, ruled that the two Sinn Féin (SF) MPs would not be given office facilities at Westminster because they had refused to take their seats in the House.

In the Queen’s speech setting out the Labour governments legislative plans it was announced that the North Report on parades and marches would be implemented in 1998. In addition the European Convention on Human Rights would be incorporated into forthcoming legislation on Northern Ireland.

Thursday 14 May 1998

Tony Blair, then British Prime Minister, paid another visit to Northern Ireland to continue campaigning for a ‘Yes’ vote in the referendum. During his visit he delivered a key note speech.

Friday 14 May 1999

There were further political talks in London involving the two Prime Ministers and the leaders of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Sinn Féin (SF). Before the meeting Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF) expressed concern about the state of the ceasefires of the main Loyalist paramilitary groups.

He claimed that the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) had co-operated with other Loyalist groups in carrying out attacks on Catholic homes.

At the meeting Tony Blair, then British Prime Minister, announced an “absolute” deadline of 30 June 1999 for the formation of an Executive and the devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly. Proposals put before the parties were thought to have been agreed by, David Trimble, then leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), the Irish Government, the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Sinn Féin (SF).

[However the UUP Assembly party failed to endorse the proposals. The proposals would have seen the d’Hondt procedure for the appointment of ministers in a power-sharing executive triggered in the coming week, with full devolution achieved by the end of June, following a report on “progress” on decommissioning by Gen. John de Chastelain.]

Sunday 14 May 2000

Cyril Ramaphosa, former secretary-general of the African National Congress (ANC), and Martti Ahtisaari, former President of Finland, both of whom were appointed as arms inspectors arrived in Northern Ireland. The arms inspectors report to the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD).

 

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Remembering all innocent victims of the Troubles

Today is the anniversary of the death of the following people killed as a results of the conflict in Northern Ireland

“To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die

– Thomas Campbell

To the innocent on the list – Your memory will live forever

– To the Paramilitaries –

There are many things worth living for, a few things worth dying for, but nothing worth killing for.

10 People lost their lives on the 14th between 1972 – 1994

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14 May 1972


Marta Campbell   (13)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: non-specific Loyalist group (LOY)
Shot while walking along Springhill Avenue, Ballymurphy, Belfast.

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14 May 1972


John Pedlow   (17)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Died one day after being shot during gun battle between Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Loyalists, Springmartin Road, Belfast.

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14 May 1972
Gerard McCusker   (24)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: non-specific Loyalist group (LOY)
Found shot on waste ground, Hopeton Street, Shankill, Belfast.

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14 May 1973


John McCormac   (34)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Died three days after being shot while walking along Raglan Street, Lower Falls, Belfast.

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14 May 1973


Roy Rutherford  (33)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed by booby trap bomb in derelict cottage, Moy Road, Portadown, County Armagh

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14 May 1977


Robert Nairac   (29)

nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Undercover British Army (BA) member. Abducted outside Three Step Inn, near Forkhill, County Armagh. Presumed killed. Body never recovered.

See Robert Nairac

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14 May 1980
Roy Hamilton   (22)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: non-specific Republican group (REP)
Shot at his workplace, a building site, Ballymagroarty, Derry.

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14 May 1981


Samuel Vallely   (23)

Protestant
Status: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed in rocket attack on Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) mobile patrol, Springfield Road, Belfast.

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14 May 1984
Seamus Fitzsimmons   (21)

Cathc
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)
Shot by undercover Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) members during attempted robbery at Post Office, Ballygalley, near Larne, County Antrim.

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14 May 1994
David Wilson   (27)

nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed during bomb attack on British Army (BA) permanent Vehicle Check Point (VCP), Castleblaney Road, Keady, County Armagh.

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Proud to be a Loyalist – But I don’t hate Catholic’s

I am 

Unashamedly Proud of My Loyalist and British Heritage.

 queen union jack.jpg

In fact I want the world to know that despite what loony lefties and followers of Corbyn think – its perfectly normal to take pride in our country and celebrate and embrace our long and glorious history.

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Someone emailed me yesterday after visiting my website and praised me for writing about the history of The Troubles and commemorating the memory of all those who had died during the  30 year conflict.

So far – so good!

And then she asked me………..

“Did I hate Catholic’s and what I thought of a United Ireland ?”.

Well at this stage my antenna went up and I thought ” Here we go again “

Let me explain….

When I set up this blog/website  last year my primary objective was to promote my Autobiography Belfast Child and hopefully attract some attention from the publishing world and maybe one day see my book printed and share my story with the world.

That was the objective anyways and the process  has been long and full of disappointments – but I am now working with high profile ghost writing Tom Henry  to complete the book and his enthusiasm for the subject is feeding my dream.

 

I  have always   thought I had an interesting story to tell ( I would wouldn’t I ? ) and within weeks of launching the site I was pleasantly surprised to see that I was receiving a lot of visitors and people were commenting on my story. As of yesterday I have had more 100,000 visitors to the site and this figure is growing and increasing weekly by a few thousand and this I must say surprised me.

It had always been my aim to dedicate the book/my story to the memory of all those killed in the Troubles  and off course to the memory of  my beloved father John Chambers – who died way to young and left a wound in my soul that can never been healed or soothed.

So with this in mind I decided to use my website to tell the story of the Northern Ireland conflict and include an unbiased (mostly) comprehensive history of all major events and deaths in the Troubles. Due to my loyalist heritage and background this has not always been easy, considering I lived through the worst years of the Troubles among the loyalist communities of West Belfast and like those around me I was on the front-line of the sectarian slaughter and there was no escape from the madness that surrounded and engulfed us.

I blamed the IRA ( and other republican terrorists ) for all the woes of life in Belfast and  I hated them with a passion  – still do.

Growing up as a protestant in Northern Ireland  is unlike life in any other part of the UK or British territories and from cradle to grave our lives are governed by the tenuous umbilical cord that reluctantly connects us to the rest of the UK and Westminster’s corridors of power.

Unlike most other communities throughout the UK we are fanatically proud of our Britishness and we have literally fought for the right to remain part of Britain and have Queen Elizabeth II as the mother of our nation.

Long may she reign

shankill road where my soul was forged.jpg

If you have read extracts from my Autobiography Belfast Child ( It’s worth it – promise ) you will know that  I was raised within the heartlands of loyalist Northern Ireland – The Glorious Shankill Road.

The UDA ( Ulster Defense Force) and other loyalist paramilitaries governed and controlled our daily lives and lived and operated among us. The loyalist community stood as one against the IRA and other republican terrorists and although there was often war between the various different groups , they were untied in their hatred of Republican’s and pride in the Union.

The definition of loyalist is :

a. A supporter of union between Great Britain and Northern Ireland

b. A person who remains loyal to the established ruler or government, especially in the face of a revolt.

 

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Why Ireland split into the Republic of Ireland & Northern Ireland

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A bit of history for you

A very brief  outlined of the beginning of the modern troubles

Whilst the Protestants’ clung to their British sovereignty and took pride in the union, our Catholic counterparts felt abandoned and second class citizens in a Unionist run state. The civil rights marches of the 60’s & Republican calls for a United Ireland were the catalyst for the IRA and other Republican terrorist groups to take up arms against the British and feed the paranoia of the loyalist community.

Northern Ireland descended into decades of sectarian conflict & slaughter. An attack on the crown was an attack on the Protestant people of the North and the Protestant paramilitaries took up arms and waged an indiscriminate war against the IRA, the Catholic population and each other. Many innocent Catholic’s and Protestant’s became targets of psychopathic sectarian murder squad’s. Murder was almost a daily occurrence and the killings on both sides perpetuated the hatred and mistrust between the two ever-warring communities. It was a recipe for disaster and Northern stood on the brink of all out civil war.

Growing up in this environment it is hardly surprising to learn that  I hated republicans and all they stood for. But that doesn’t mean I hated Catholic’s or Irish people and would  wish  any harm on them – I don’t and I didn’t.

It means I have a different point of view and democracy is all about freedom of choice and my choice is to maintain the Union with the UK and embrace and celebrate my loyalist culture and tradition. It also means I have the right to take pride in the union with the rest of the UK and I wear my nationality like a badge of honor for all the world to  see.

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proud to be british jason mawer

Jason Mawer has been warned twice to remove his jacket in case it offends someone

The unique Mod-style jacket in red, white and blue was made a few years ago for a Who convention in London

Pub landlord Jason Mawer has twice been asked in public to remove his treasured Union Jack jacket – for risk of it being ‘offensive’.

He was told to take off his valuable Mod-style Barbour jacket – designed in honour of legendary rock band The Who – by officials who appeared to be council enforcement officers.

On the second occasion the female official warned him: ‘Would you mind removing your coat it might offend somebody.’

See Daily Mail for full Story 

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In recent years it has become almost politically  “incorrect” to show any signs of pride in being British and mad lefties and their deluded disciples are always banging on about offending other religions and communities throughout the UK. The fact that the UK has such a diverse melting pot of different nationalities and religions  and is generally accommodating to them – is lost on these do gooders and they ignore our country’s  long history of religious and politically tolerance and instead accuse us of being  xenophobic  and this offends me no end.

Have they forgotten that it was our forefathers who fought and died for our great nation and our democracy is built on their ultimate  sacrifice for our freedom – they did not die in vain.

…back to the email

If you had taken the time to have a proper  look through my site you would be aware that I commemorate the deaths of all innocent people killed as a direct result of the conflict in Northern Ireland , regardless of political or religious  background  . I also cover the deaths of paramilitaries from both sides killed “in Action” as my objective to to give a complete picture of the history of the Troubles.

I receive lots of emails and comments about my site and although most of these are positive –  a few ( normally from republicans ) accuse me of being a loyalist and somehow responsible for the all the deaths in Northern Ireland’s tortured history. Generally I ignore these emails as they are so far of the mark – if they had taken the time to read my story they would know a bit more about my history and know that I preach love – not hate!

Just because I am proud of the union and my British heritage does not mean I hate Catholics or Irish people or any others for that matter – in fact I judge no man on his colour , creed , religious or political background (apart from Republican Terrorists ).

I judge people on their humanity and empathy towards others and the world around us . Life is for living – so live and let live.

Anne Frank

“In spite of everything, I still believe that people are really good at heart.”
Anne Frank

A Letter from the past lead to a reunion with my “dead” mother.

via Belfast Child. Autobiography.

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The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest – Rome’s darkest hour.

The 

Battle of the Teutoburg Forest 

 

Teutoburgh header

 

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was a military battle that took place in the year 9 AD. In the battle, an alliance of Germanic tribes won a major victory over three Roman legions. The Germanic tribes were led by Arminius; the Roman legions by Publius Quinctilius Varus.

This was more than a victory, it was the complete destruction of three Roman legions and all their commanders; the few men who survived were made slaves.

It was the greatest disaster in Roman military history. Apart from occasional raids and campaigns, the Romans never again held the Germanic land across the Rhine.

The battle began a seven-year war which ended with the Rhine as the boundary of the Roman Empire for the next four hundred years, until the decline of the Western Roman Empire.

My thoughts…..

I have long held a fascination bordering on obsession with ancient Rome and all things related to the birth and brutal uncompromising rise of one of the greatest Empires ever known to mankind.

If I could travel through time and space I would travel to the last days of the Roman  Republic and witness  the giants of ancient Rome , Caesar , Pompey & Crassus rule the known world and the rise of the first emperor  Octavian , known  as Augustus , who paved the way for the demonic Caligula and the depraved Nero.

Imagine watching as Caesar crossed the Rubicon and change the course of Rome’s history forever or witnessing his legions historic battles during the brutal Gallic Wars. Or standing on the sidelines watching general Publius Cornelius Scipio , ( Scipio ) one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time taking on the might of Carthage  and defeating Hannibal at the final battle at Zama

Sadly but unsurprisingly  Caesar , Pompey & Crassus and many others  met with violent deaths and the Ides of March  marked a pivotal change of direction for the Roman people and those they ruled and subjugated without remorse.

The age of Emperors had arrived and Rome would never be the same.

I would like to visit Antony and Cleopatra and see what all the fuss was about and watch as the original love story unfolded and witness their sad demise and the suicides that would immortalized their love for all time.

 I would watch as the Roman legions marched against countless armies opposed to the Empire’s iron rule and ruthlessly destroyed all in their paths and the dithering Claudius’s desperate attempt to conquer Britannia in his quest for eternal glory  and the love of the mobs in the forums of Rome.

Imagine the sights and sounds  of the legions faced with the wicked druids on the island of Anglesey, or Mona as it was then known, at the edge of the known world and I would marvel as the mother of Girl Power Boudica led the Iceni tribe in an uprising that pushed the legions to their very limits.

 I could go on all day but I’ve just realized I’m boring myself stupid and gods knows what I’m doing to you.

The  Battle of the Teutoburg Forest  was a pivotal moment in Rome’s history and has long fascinated me, hence this post.

Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Part of the Roman-Germanic wars

 

Epitaph des Marcus Caelius.JPG
Cenotaph of Marcus Caelius, 1st centurion of XVIII, who “fell in the war of Varus” (bello Variano).
Reconstructed inscription:

 

“To Marcus Caelius, son of Titus, of the Lemonian district, from Bologna, first centurion of the eighteenth legion. 53½ years old. He fell in the Varian War. His freedman’s bones may be interred here. Publius Caelius, son of Titus, of the Lemonian district, his brother, erected (this monument).”

Date circa September, 9 C.E.
Location Osnabrück County, Lower Saxony
Result Decisive Germanic victory.
Roman Empire’s strategic withdrawal from Magna Germania.
Belligerents
Germanic tribes
(CherusciMarsiChattiBructeriChauci and Sicambri)
 Roman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus 
Units involved
Unknown Legio XVII
Legio XVIII
Legio XIX
6 auxiliary cohorts
alae
Strength
Unknown, but estimates range from 12,000–32,000. 20,000–max.36,000
Casualties and losses
Unknown. 16,000  to 20,000 dead 
Some others enslaved.

 

The leaders

Image result for Roman commander, Varus

Publius Quinctilius Varus

The Roman commander, Varus, was about the fourth most important man in Rome. He was known and feared because of his ruthless actions and his crucifixion of defeated enemies. It is certain this was known to the Germans, and may have helped the tribes come together to resist him.

The German commander was Arminius, who had been given a Roman military education. He had spent his youth in Rome as a hostage. Therefore, he knew Roman military methods: this knowledge was to be crucial.

Later, Arminius returned to Germania with Varus, and became his trusted advisor.

In secret, he forged an alliance of Germanic tribes that had traditionally been enemies. He was helped to do this by the anger over Varus’ insolence and cruelty to the people he defeated.

“…Stratagem was, therefore, indispensable; and it was necessary to blind Varus to their schemes until a favorable opportunity should arrive for striking a decisive blow…”

British historian Edward Shepherd Creasy (1812–1878)

While Varus was on his way from his summer camp, west of the Weser river, to the winter headquarters near the Rhine, he heard reports of a local rebellion. This was faked by Arminius.

“…This was represented to Varus as an occasion which required his prompt attendance at the spot; but he was kept in studied ignorance of its being part of a concerted national rising; and he still looked on Arminius as his submissive vassal…” Edward Shepherd Creasy

Recent archaeological finds place the battle at Kalkriese Hill in Osnabrück County, Lower SaxonyThe Romans must at this time have been marching northwestward from the area that is now the city of Detmold, passing east of Osnabrück; they must then have camped in this area before being attacked.

Battle

Varus’s forces included three legions, six cohorts of auxiliary troops (non-citizens or allied troops) and three squadrons of cavalry. Many of them had little combat experience with Germanic fighters under local conditions.

The Roman forces were not marching in combat formation, and there were also large numbers of camp-followers. As they entered the forest they found the track narrow and muddy; according to Dio Cassius a violent storm had also arisen. He also writes that Varus neglected to send out advance reconnaissance parties.

The line of march was dangerously stretched out – estimates are that it was more than 15 km (9 miles), and was perhaps as long as 20 km (12 miles).

It was then suddenly attacked by Germanic warriors who were carrying some light swords, large lances and spears that came with short and narrow blades, so sharp and warrior friendly that they could be used as required. The Germanic warriors surrounded the entire Roman army and rained down javelins on the intruders.

The Romans were able to set up a fortified night camp, and the next morning broke out into open country, near the modern town of Ostercappeln. The break-out cost them heavy losses, as did a further attempt to escape by marching through another forest area, with heavy rains continuing. The rain stopped them from using their bows because sinew strings become slack when wet, and left them virtually defenseless as their shields also became waterlogged.

Image result for romans march to escape,

The Romans then began a night march to escape, but marched into another trap that Arminius had set, at the foot of a hill near Osnabrück. There, the sandy, open strip on which the Romans could march easily narrowed at the bottom of the hill. There was a gap of only about 100 m between the woods and the swampland at the edge of the Great Bog.

The road was blocked by a trench, and, towards the forest, an earthen wall had been built along the roadside. This let the tribesmen to attack the Romans from cover.

The Romans made a desperate attempt to storm the wall, but failed. The Germanic warriors then stormed the field and slaughtered the Romans; Varus committed suicide.

Around 15,000–20,000 Roman soldiers must have died; not only Varus, but also many of his officers are said to have taken their own lives by falling on their swords in the approved manner.

Tacitus

 Tacitus wrote that many officers were sacrificed by the Germans as part of their indigenous religious ceremonies, cooked in pots and their bones used for rituals.[11] However, others were ransomed, and some of the common soldiers were enslaved.

The victory over the legions was followed by a clean sweep of all Roman fortsgarrisons and cities – of which there were at least two – east of the Rhine. The remaining two Roman legions in Germany were stationed in a fort at Mainz, and commanded by Varus’ nephew. They were content to try to hold the Rhine.

Varus’s mistakes

  1. Segestes, father of Arminius’ wife and opposed to the marriage, warned Varus about Arminius. The night before the Roman forces left, he suggested Varus arrest Arminius and several other Germanic leaders. He must have known they were plotting an uprising. Varus dismissed the advice as motivated by a personal feud.
    Arminius then left saying he would drum up Germanic forces to support the Roman campaign. Instead he led his troops, who must have been waiting close by, in attacks on surrounding Roman garrisons.
  2. Even without this warning, Varus, as a matter of policy, should have been less trusting of Arminius, who turned out to be a double agent.
  3. The choice of a march through the forest was against normal Roman military methods, because both vision and defence are limited in a forest. The march was not done in combat formation.
    Obviously, this route was chosen as a ‘short cut’, but Varus had no proof that such urgency was really necessary. This was doubly so as the forest caused the line to stretch so far that one part could not support another.
  4. The lack of scouts (‘reconnaissance parties’) was almost criminal, and would probably have had Varus executed had he not taken his life.
  5. The bad weather was another good reason for caution when going into the forest. The forest was unknown ground to Varus. New routes should always be scouted.

Though we can never know why Varus made these mistakes, his reputation for arrogance and over-confidence suggests he under-estimated the Germans. But all Rome’s previous experience, from Caesar onwards, had shown the Germanic tribes as strong in war.

Aftermath

Upon hearing of the defeat, the Emperor Augustus, according to the Roman historian Suetonius in his work De vita Caesarum (On the life of the Caesars), was so shaken by the news that he stood butting his head against the wall of his palace, repeatedly shouting:

Quintili Vare, legiones redde!“ (‘Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!’)

The three legion numbers were never used again by the Romans after this defeat, unlike other legions that were restructured – a case unique in Roman history.

The battle ended the period of triumphant Roman expansion that had followed the end of the Civil Wars 40 years earlier. Augustus’ stepson Tiberius took effective control, and prepared for the continuation of the war. Three legions were sent to the Rhine to replace the lost legions.

Roman retaliation

The Roman commander Germanicus was the opponent of Arminius in 14–16 AD

Though their shock at the slaughter was great, the Romans began a slow, systematic preparation to reconquer the country. In 14 AD, just after Augustus’ death, and the accession of his heir and stepson Tiberius, a huge raid was led by the new emperor’s nephew Germanicus.

On a starry night he massacred the Marsi and ravaged their villages with fire and sword. That night the Germans had celebrated; drunk and asleep, they were surprised by Germanicus. The temple of their deity was destroyed.

Several other tribes were roused by this slaughter and ambushed Germanicus on the way to his winter-quarters, but were defeated with heavy losses.

battles with a large army estimated at 55,000–70,000 men, backed by naval forces. In spring 15 AD, the legate Caecina Severus invaded the Marsi a second time with 25,000–30,000 men, causing great havoc.

Meanwhile, Germanicus’ troops had built a fort on Mount Taunus from where he marched with 30 to 35,000 men against the Chatti (probably a region of villages) and slaughtered children, women and the elderly. The able-bodied men fled across a river and hid themselves in the forests. After this blow Germanicus marched on Mattium and burned the city down.

In summer 15 AD, the army visited the site of the first battle. According to Tacitus, they found heaps of bones, and skulls nailed to trees, which they buried,

“…looking on all as kinsfolk and of their own blood…”.

Burial pits with remains fitting this description have been found at Kalkriese Hill.

Under Germanicus, the Romans marched another army, with allied Germanic soldiers, into Germania in 16 AD. He was able to fight his way across the Weser near modern Minden, suffering some losses. He forced Arminius’ army to stand in open battle at the Weser River. Germanicus’s legions inflicted huge casualties on the Germanic armies while sustaining only minor losses.

One final battle was fought at the Angivarian Wall, west of modern Hanover. Again many Germanic soldiers were killed, which forced them to flee. In summer 16 AD, Caius Silius marched against the Chatti with 33,000 men. Germanicus invaded the Marsi for a third time and devastated their land.

With his main goals reached and winter coming, Germanicus ordered his army back to their winter camps, with the fleet getting damaged in a storm in the North Sea. After a few more raids across the Rhine, with the recovery of two of the three Roman legions’ eagles lost in 9 AD, Tiberius ordered the Roman forces to halt and withdraw across the Rhine. Germanicus was recalled to Rome and informed by Tiberius that he would be given a Triumph and a new command.

 

Germanicus’ campaign had been to revenge the defeat at Teutoburg, and also partly in reaction to signs of mutiny amongst his troops.

Image result for Germanicus' campaign,

Arminius, who had been considered a real threat to stability by Rome, was now defeated. Once his allied Germanic coalition had been broken and honour avenged, the huge cost and risk of keeping the Roman army operating beyond the Rhine was not worth any likely benefit to be gained.

The last chapter of this story is told by the historian Tacitus. Around 50 AD, bands of Chatti invaded Roman territory and began to plunder (take everything of value). The Roman commander, with a legionary force supported by Roman cavalry and auxiliaries, attacked the Chatti from both sides and defeated them. Great was the joy when they found Roman prisoners, including some from Varus’ legions who had been held by the Chatti for 40 years.

The Lost Legions of Varus 

 

Later German nationalism

The battle, and the histories of Tacitus, had a big effect on 19th century German nationalism. In the 19th century the Germans were still divided into many German states, but they linked themselves with the Germanic tribes as shared ancestors of one “German people”.

In 1808, the German author Heinrich von Kleist‘s play Die Hermannsschlacht aroused anti-Napoleonic sentiment, even though it could not be performed under French occupation.

Later, the figure of Arminius was used to represent the ideals of freedom and unification – as supported by German liberals, and opposed by reactionary rulers. A memorial – the Hermannsdenkmal – was begun during this period, and Arminius became a symbol of Pan-Germanism. The monument remained unfinished for decades, until after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 unified the country. The completed monument was then a symbol of conservative German nationalism.

 

Germanic Tribes – Battle of the Teutoburg Forest

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Forest today

Guinea Pig Club – What’s its all about?

Belfast Child

Guinea Pig Club

Hero’s One  & All

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The Guinea Pig Club, established in 1941, was a social club and mutual support network for British and alliedaircrew injured during World War II. Its membership was made up of patients of Archibald McIndoe at Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, Sussex, who had undergone experimental reconstructiveplastic surgery, generally after receiving burns injuries in aircraft. The club remained active after the end of the war, and its annual reunion meetings continued until 2007.

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Origins

The club was formed on McIndoe’s initiative in June 1941 with 39 patients, primarily as a drinking club. The members were aircrew patients in the hospital and the surgeons and anaesthetists who treated them. Aircrew members had to be serving airmen who had gone through at least two surgical procedures. By the end of the war the club had 649 members.

The name…

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Being a Dad is stressful…..

My Baby Autumn 

I’m finding being a father of a teenage daughter who’s just turned eighteen  a little stressful.  She went out with friends for a drink last night (only 2nd time ever) & I couldn’t relax or settle until she was home & safe in her bed.

Hmmmm.

I know I need to give her freedom and let her explore the world around her, but no matter how old she is she’ll always be my baby girl & I’ll always want to protect her from the evils of this world. Plus she’s a pretty girl and too many teenage boys are sniffing around her. Grrrrr

I suppose it’s a cross all loving father have to bare and I need to man up and let her go.

 

Cold-Blooded Cop Killer Dale Cregan

Dale Cregan

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Dale Cregan was jailed for life for the murders of David Short, 46, and son Mark, 23, and of policewomen Nicola Hughes, 23, and Fiona Bone, 32, in a horrifying gun and grenade attack in 2012. The murder of the two female police officers shocked and appalled all right minded folk in the Uk and across the globe and I was profoundly  saddened and sickened by this brutal and unforgivable crime.

Since the  abolition of death penalty in UK gun crime has risen substantially year on year and yet our police forces walk the streets largely unarmed and this makes them  the envy of many other police forces throughout the world. Sadly many good men and women within the forces have died at the hands of gun/knife wielding madmen and the death of these two innocent police women is testament to how dangerous the job is.

I salute you all!

See below for a list of all police deaths in the line off duty.

Dale Christopher Cregan (born 6 June 1983) is an English convicted drug-dealer and murderer who was sentenced to a whole life order in prison for four counts of murder (including the killing of two police officers) and three separate counts of attempted murder, meaning that he will never be released from prison.

Murders and subsequent convictions

 

Victims: Cregan first murdered Mark Short at a birthday party in May and then killed his father David Short (left) three months later

On 25 May 2012, Cregan shot dead Mark Short, 23, in the Cotton Tree pub in DroylsdenGreater Manchester. In the same incident, he tried to kill three other men.

 

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On 10 August, he killed Mark Short’s father, 46-year-old David Short, at his house in Clayton, Manchester by shooting him nine times with a Glock pistol and then throwing a M75 hand grenade onto him, blowing his body apart.

 

 

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On 18 September 2012, Cregan made a hoax emergency call to the police. Police Constables Nicola Hughes, 23, and Fiona Bone, 32, Greater Manchester Police officers, were mobilised to Cregan’s call in Hattersley.

He claimed that there had been an incident of criminal damage at his house.

When they arrived, Cregan ambushed the constables, shooting them and throwing an M75 hand grenade at them. Both officers were hit by at least eight bullets as Cregan fired 32 shots in 31 seconds.

He later handed himself in at a local police station, admitting to killing Hughes and Bone. He was swiftly charged with these murders, and soon afterwards charged with the murders of Mark and David Short.

During his trial, which began on 4 February 2013, Cregan was detained at Manchester Prison. The trial was held at Preston Crown Court, where scaffolding was erected to accommodate armed officers.

 

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Police snipers watched over the building from nearby offices. The daily convoy, carrying Cregan between Manchester and Preston, included two prison vans, police cars, motorcycle outriders and a helicopter.

In total, 120 Greater Manchester Police officers were deployed daily. The total cost of the trial was in excess of £5 million.

Cregan was convicted of all four murders and of three attempted murders in the Mark Short incident. Cregan was sentenced to life imprisonment with a whole life order on 13 June 2013.

In August 2013 it was reported that Cregan was on hunger strike at HM Prison Full Sutton.

He was moved to Ashworth Hospital in September 2013.

 

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Andrew Summerscales

 

Dale Cregan Police officer filled out own death report before killing himself

Andrew Summerscales is believed to have been one of the first officers on the scene of his murdered colleagues

A former police officer filled out his own death report before taking his own life after two of his colleagues were murdered by one-eyed gangster Dale Cregan, an inquest has heard.

Andrew Summerscales had “loved” being a police officer until fellow officers on his shift, his “very good friends,” Nicola Hughes and Fiona Bone, were both murdered by Cregan.

He is believed to have been one of the first officers on the murder scene.

Cregan, who was already wanted by police for the double murder of a father and son, lured the officers with a bogus call before killing them in a gun and grenade attack in Hattersley, Tameside, in September 2012.

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National Police Officers Roll of Honour and Remembrance

In Memory of British Police Officers who Lost their Lives in the Line of Duty

Annual Roll

English Roll – Scottish Roll – Welsh Roll – Island of Ireland Roll – National Forces Roll – Ports & Tunnels Roll – Islands Roll

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See here for : List of British police officers killed in the line of duty

What’s on my Mind ? Any Computer Experts out there?

I’ve been having a feckin nightmare with this laptop and am only now able to use it by the grace of the gods.

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Dulse

A few days ago it crashed and since then I have been unable to use it and its driving me bloody mad. On reflection I think I may have been suffering from Social Media blackout and I was going through the bends…I wonder.

Anyways I’v ran SFC Scannow , DISM and every other bloody utility that comes with Windows and is suppose to “SAVE” /repair the computer when things go south!!

When I reboot I keep getting a message saying the PC couldn’t start properly and they are gathering information. It then tries to fix the issue and the ” Automatic Repair screen kicks in and then it  keeps looping via this whole process.

its reports that a critical file is missing MSRPC.SY and I have tried everything to reinstate this bloody file.

Eventually I had to start the computer in “Safe” mode and after loading everything I couldn’t  even run the windowsmediainstallation thingy on the USB stick , because it tells me that “Windows 10 can’t be run on this computer.

So again I reboot and am able to boot to the installation thingy on the USB stick and it  gives me various options and I choose repair , then restore and it has two restore points (when I was in safe mode no restore points showed up) which I select one and the whole restore thingy kicks in and after a YEAR it completes and I am able get into Windows and use it, although many programs are not working properly. So I reboot  and it takes me right back to the first blue screen and I have to go through the whole dragged out process again, included the restore process.

I have decided that I hate this laptop & if it wasn’t for the colossal amount of pictures,files,web backup file ect on it , I would throw  out the window.

I also keep getting a message that a critical file is missing MSRPC.SYS or …

Sorry my brain is melting and I can’t write or think about this issue a movement longer. I’m going to walk away from the laptop and lay down for a bit.

Dad – What’s A Dictator?

My ten year old  son  just asked me:

” Dad , whats a dictator?”

Well says I and tried to explain it in simple terms that he would understand. It wasn’t enough and he still looks confused , so I pulled up Wikipedia , as you do and I patiently went through the details with him.

He’s still not sure and after a brief averous  sigh he gets to the root of his curiosity and asked me:

“Do they get a lot of money? ”

Hmmm…. Says I. And return to what I was doing.

Two minutes later:

” Dad, Is it just dark when you die? ”

Time for your bath , says I!

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dictator
dɪkˈteɪtə/
noun
  1. a ruler with total power over a country, typically one who has obtained control by force.

    Dictator

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power and wields it in an oppressive or abusive manner. A state ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium).

    Like the term “tyrant” (which was originally a respectable Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree “autocrat“, “dictator” came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet it had rare modern titular use.

    In modern usage, the term “dictator” is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power, especially the power to make laws without effective restraint by a legislative assembly[not verified in body]. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following traits: suspension of elections and civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergencyrule by decreerepression of political opponents without abiding by the rule of law procedures; these include one-party state, and cult of personality.

     

    See Wikipedia for full details.

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Greysteel shootings – 30 October 1993

Belfast Child

Disclaimer – The views and opinions expressed in these documentaries are soley intended to educate and provide background information to those interested in the Troubles of Northern Ireland. They in no way reflect my own opinions and I take no responsibility for any inaccuracies or factual errors.

The Greysteel massacre

The Greysteel massacre[1][2] was a mass shooting that happened on the evening of 30 October 1993 in Greysteel, County Derry, Northern Ireland. Three members of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), a loyalist paramilitary group, opened fire in a crowded pub during a Halloween party, killing eight civilians and wounding thirteen. The pub was in an Irish Catholic and Irish nationalist area. The group claimed responsibility using their cover name “Ulster Freedom Fighters” and said that the attack was revenge for the Shankill Road bombing a week earlier.

See Shankill Road Bombing

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The Innocent Victims

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