Statistical breakdown of deaths in the Troubles of Northern Ireland 1969 – 2001

banner1 deaths

Annual Killings by Military and Paramilitary Groups (1969-2001)

Year

Republican

Loyalist

British

Others

Total

1969

3

3

10

0

16

1970

18

1

5

2

26

1971

98

21

45

7

171

1972

265

117

86

12

480

1973

133

86

32

4

255

1974

147

123

18

6

294

1975

125

123

8

4

260

1976

154

118

16

9

297

1977

75

26

8

1

110

1978

63

9

10

0

82

1979

102

17

2

0

121

1980

51

14

9

6

80

1981

71

12

18

13

114

1982

83

15

12

1

111

1983

61

9

12

2

84

1984

48

7

12

2

69

1985

48

4

5

0

57

1986

40

15

5

1

61

1987

71

15

10

2

98

1988

70

23

11

0

104

1989

54

18

4

0

76

1990

52

19

10

0

81

1991

50

40

6

1

97

1992

40

38

10

0

88

1993

38

49

0

1

88

1994

25

37

1

1

64

1995

7

2

0

0

9

1996

13

4

1

1

19

1997

5

16

1

0

22

1998

36

17

1

1

55

1999

4

3

0

1

8

2000

5

14

0

0

19

2001

3

12

0

1

16

Total

2,058

1,027

368*

79

3,532

Note: * Includes 5 killings by Irish Republics Forces

Killings by Military and Paramilitary Groups (1969-2001)

Republican Paramilitary Groups
Irish Republican Army (IRA) (includes 88 by non-specific Republican group since 1970)

1,823

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) (includes 3 by non-specific Republican group during 1969)

56

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)

123

Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO)

24

Saor Eire (SE)

3

Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA)

29

Total

2,058

Loyalist Paramilitary Groups
Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) (includes RHC, PAF, and PAG)

483

Ulster Defence Association (UDA) (includes UFF and LRDG)

262

Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)

18

Red Hand Defenders (RHD)

8

Non-specific Loyalist group (LOY)

256

Total

1,027

British Forces
British Army (BA)

297

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR)

8

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

55

Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) (“B” Specials)

1

Royal Air Force (RAF)

1

British Police

1

Total

363

Irish Forces
Garda Síochána

4

Irish Army

1

Total

5

Others (Unable or impossible to identify killing group)
Total

79

Cumulative Total (1969 to 31 December 2001)
Total

3,532

Geographical Location of Killings (1969 – 2001)
Northern Ireland

3,272

Irish Republic

117

Britain

125

Elsewhere in Europe

18

Total

3,532


REPUBLICAN KILLINGS

Five paramilitary groups have carried out the Republican killings:

  1. Irish Republican Army (IRA) has killed 1,823. This total includes 88 killings marked as ‘Republican’ (or ‘non-specific Republican group’) in the text which occurred from 1970 onwards.
  2. Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) has killed 147. This figure includes its predecessor, People’s Liberation army, and the breakaway faction, Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO).
  3. Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) has killed 56. This total includes 3 killings marked ‘Republican’ (or ‘non-specific Republican group’) in the text which occurred during 1969.
  4. Saor Eire has killed 3.
  5. Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) has killed 29

IRA Killings (1,823)

British Forces
British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland *

417

British Army (BA) outside Northern Ireland **

50

Former British Army (xBA) members ***

5

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

190

Former Ulster Defence Regiment (xUDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (xRIR) members

38

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

271

Former Royal Ulster Constabulary (xRUC) members

14

British Police ****

6

Prison Officers (PO)

20

Former Prison Officers (xPO)

2

Total British Forces Killed

1,013

Note:
* Includes 1 member of the Royal Navy (RN);
** Includes 4 members of the Royal Air Force (RAF);
*** Killed in Northern Ireland;
**** Killed in Britain

Alleged Informers
Total

59

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel
Ulster Defence Association (UDA)

31

Former Ulster Defence Association (xUDA) members

1

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)

12

Red Hand Commando (RHC) 1
Total

45

Unintended Targets
Civilians killed during attacks on British Forces, or who were mistaken for British Forces
Protestant civilians

73

Catholic civilians

51

Civilians not from Northern Ireland *

17

Civilians killed who were mistaken for Loyalist paramilitary personnel
Protestant civilians

3

Catholic civilians

1

Civilian killed who was mistaken for a contractor to British Forces
Catholic civilian

1

Civilians killed during attacks on the Northern Ireland Judiciary or who were mistaken for members of the Northern Ireland Judiciary
Protestant civilians

4

Catholic civilians

1

Civilian killed during an attack on a Unionist politician
Protestant civilian

1

Total

152

Note:
* Includes 7 civilians killed in Britain and 4 killed elsewhere in Europe.

Bomb attacks on commercial property
IRA personnel and civilians killed in premature bomb explosions, and civilians killed during bomb attacks on commercial property in Northern Ireland
Irish Republican Army (IRA) personnel *

103

Non-specific Republicans (REP)

2

Protestant civilians **

73

Catholic civilians **

32

Civilians not from Northern Ireland (nfNI)

2

Total

212

Note:
* Includes 4 IRA members killed in premature bomb explosions in Britain;
** Includes 1 Catholic and 5 Protestant civilians killed while attempting to stop bomb attack on their commercial property

Civilians working for British Forces
Civilians employed directly by the British Army (BA)

7

Contractors to British Army (BA) and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) *

27

Total

34

Note:
* Includes 12 employees of contractors

Sectarian killings of Protestant civilians *
Total

130

Note:
* Deliberate killings of Protestant civilians. 88 of these killings occurred during the three years 1974-1976. The IRA used a nom de guerre – Republican Action Force (RepAF) – to claim responsibility for some of these killings during this period.

Civilians in Britain
Total

46

British ‘VIPs’
Christopher Ewart-Biggs, British Ambassador to Ireland, and his secretary

2

Richard Sykes, British Ambassador to The Netherlands, and his valet

2

Lord Louis Mountbatten and his entourage

4

Bomb attack on British Conservative Party’s Annual Conference

5

Ian Gow, Conservative MP

1

Lord Kaberry, ex-Conservative MP

1

Total

15

Unionist / Loyalist Politicians
Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Members

4

Ulster Clubs (UC) Member

1

Loyalist Association of Workers (LAW) Member

1

Member of Ulster Resistance (UR)

1

Total

7

Feud with Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) (all prior to 1978)
Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members

4

Members of Republican Clubs (now Workers’ Party; WP)

3

Catholic civilians

4

Total

11

Irish Republic’s Forces
Garda Síochána

6

Irish Army

1

Irish Prison Officer 1
Total

8

Northern Ireland Judiciary
Judges

3

Magistrates

4

Senior Director of Public Prosecutions Official

1

Total

8

Alleged criminals and drug dealers
Total

19

Others
Protestant civilians during street disturbances

7

Catholic civilian during street disturbances
1
Protestant civilians at Irish Republican Army (IRA) roadblocks

2

Catholic civilian at Irish Republican Army (IRA) roadblock

1

‘Foreign’ Businessmen (all early 1977)

3

Member of Irish People’s Liberation Organisation Belfast Brigade (IPLOBB) *

1

Applicant to Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

1

Witness to an Irish Republican Army (IRA) operation

1

Civilians killed during armed robberies

4

Civilian instructor employed by Northern Ireland Prison Service

1

Civilian census collector

1

Fine Gael (FG) Senator **

1

Irish Republican Army (IRA) member in dispute

1

Former Irish Republican Army (xIRA) members in dispute

2

Irish Republican Army (IRA) member shot ‘in error’

1

Member of real Irish Republican Army (rIRA)

1

Total

29

Note:
* A splinter group from the Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO), killed during the enforced disbandment of these two groups by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the autumn of 1992;
** Billy Fox, Fine Gael (FG) Senator, was shot during a confrontation with an Irish Republican Army (IRA) unit near to the home of a friend, Clones, County Monaghan, during March 1974.

Reason Not Known
IRA member 1
Protestant civilians

4

Catholic civilians

29

Civilian not from Northern Ireland *

1

Total

35

Note:
* Dutch seaman killed 12 November 1971.


INLA Killings (147)
(Includes 24 killings by IPLO between November 1986 and October 1992)

British Forces
British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland

18

British Army (BA) outside Northern Ireland

1

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

7

Former Ulster Defence Regiment (xUDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (xRIR) members

1

Royal Navy Reservist

1

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

14

Former Royal Ulster Constabulary (xRUC) members

4

Prison Officers

2

Total

48

Alleged Informers
Total

6

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel
Ulster Defence Association (UDA)

4

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)

3

Former Ulster Volunteer Force (xUVF) members

2

Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)

1

Red Hand Commando (RHC) 1
Total

11

Unionist / Loyalist Politicians
Total

2

Note:
* John McKeague killed 29 January 1982 and George Seawright killed 3 December 1987.

Unintended Targets
Civilians killed during attacks on British Forces, or who were mistaken for British Forces
Protestant civilians

9

Catholic civilians

7

Civilian not from Northern Ireland

1

Civilians killed during attacks on Loyalist paramilitary personnel, or who were mistaken for Loyalist paramilitary personnel
Protestant civilians

1

Total

18

Sectarian killings of Protestant civilians
Total *

20

Note:
* Deliberate killings of Protestant civilians. The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) have used nommes de guerre, such as People’s Republican Army (PRA) and Catholic Reaction Force (CRF) to claim responsibility for some of these killings.

Feuds
With Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) (1975 and 1982) – OIRA members

4

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) / Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO) feud*

12

Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO) / IPLO Belfast Brigade (IPLOBB) **

3

Internal Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) feud ***

6

Total

25

Note:
* Between December 1986 and March 1987;
** During August and September 1992;
*** Between January and September 1996.

Irish Republic’s Forces
Garda Síochána

2

Total

2

Alleged criminals
Total

2

Others
Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) member in premature bomb explosion

1

Civilian during armed robbery

1

Former Irish National Liberation Army (xINLA) member in dispute

1

Magistrate

1

Protestant civilian employed by Northern Ireland prison service

1

British politician*

1

Total

6

Note:
* Airey Neave, Conservative MP, killed 30 march 1979.

Reason Not Known
Catholic civilians

4

ex-INLA Member

1

Civilian not from Northern Ireland

2

Total

7


Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) Killings (56)

British Forces
British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland

13

British Army (BA) outside Northern Ireland
1
Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

1

Former Ulster Defence Regiment (xUDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (xRIR) members

1

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

3

Total

19

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel
Ulster Defence Association (UDA)

1

Total

1

Unintended Targets
Civilians killed during attacks on British Forces
Catholic civilians

3

Civilians not from Northern Ireland *

6

Total

9

Note:
* Killed during bomb attack on British Army base, Aldershot, England, on 22 February 1972.

Premature Bomb Explosions
Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members (one in Irish Republic)

3

Total

3

Feuds
With Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) (1975 and 1977) – INLA members

2

Members of Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP)

2

With Irish Republican Army (IRA) (1971, 1975, and 1977) – IRA members

3

Member of Sinn Féin (SF)

1

Catholic civilians

4

With Saor Eire (SE) (1975) – SE member

1

Total

13

Others
Protestant civilians during street disturbances *

3

Sectarian killing of protestant civilian

1

Civilian during armed robbery

1

Civilian during punishment attack

1

Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Senator **

1

Total

7

Note:
* During August and September 1969;
** John Barnhill, Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Stormont Senator, killed 12 December 1971.

Unknown
Former Official Irish Republican Army (xOIRA) members

2

Catholic civilian

1

Civilian in Irish Republic

1

Total

4


Saor Eire (SE) Killings (3)

1 member of Garda Siochana, and 2 members of Saor Eire (1 killed in a premature bomb explosion and 1 killed during an internal Saor Eire dispute). All 3 killings occurred in the Irish Republic.


Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) Killings (29)

Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) Killings
All killed during car bomb explosion in Omagh, County Tyrone on 15 August 1998.
Catholic civilians

13

Protestant civilians

11

Civilians not from Northern Ireland

5

Total

29


LOYALIST KILLINGS

Four paramilitary groups have carried out the Loyalist killinqs:

  1. Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) has killed 483. It has also used nommes de guerre, Protestant Action Force (PAF), and Protestant Action Group (PAG) to claim responsibility for some killings. Included in this figure are 13 killings carried out by its offshoot, Red Hand Commando (RHC).
  2. Ulster Defence Association (UDA) has killed 262. This figure includes 2 killinqs claimed by the Loyalist Retaliation and Defence Group (LRDG) during 1991. The UDA has never claimed responsibility for any killing, preferring to use a nom de guerre, Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF).
  3. Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) has killed 18.
  4. Red Hand Defenders (RHD) has killed 8.

In many instances, Loyalist military groups have never claimed responsibility for their killings, therefore it is virtually impossible to ascertain in every case which loyalist group carried out a particular killing. There are 256 killings in the non-specific loyalist group category marked ‘Loyalist’ (or non-specific Loyalist group; ‘LOY’) in the text. Hence all loyalist killings have been grouped together in the tables below.

Loyalist Killings (1,027)

Republican Paramilitary Personnel
Irish Republican Army (IRA) members

19

Former members of the Irish Republican Army (xIRA)

10

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) members

4

Former members of Irish National Liberation Army (xINLA)

1

Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO) members

2

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members

5

Total

41

Nationalist / Republican Politicians
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) members

5

Sinn Fein (SF) members *

14

Workers Party (WP) member

1

Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) members

3

Irish Independence Party (IIP) member

1

Independent Nationalist Councillors

2

Nationalist Lawyers

2

Ex-internees

3

Total

31

Note:
* Includes one former member of Sinn Fein (SF).

British Forces
British Army (BA) in Northern Ireland

1

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR)

3

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

8

Prison Officers (PO)

2

Total *

14

Note:
* Of the total 3 were killed during attacks on Catholic civilians, Catholic owned property or were mistaken for a Catholic, 1 was a Catholic member of the UDR, and 1 was killed during a bomb attack on a garage that had remained open during a Loyalist strike. Only 9 of the killings of British forces have been deliberate (6 RUC members, 1 British Army member and 2 prison officers).

Alleged Informers
Total

16

Sectarian Killings of Catholic civilians *
Total

718

Note:
* Deliberate killing of Catholic civilians. Includes 63 Protestant civilians, and 9 civilians not from Northern Ireland (3 from Britain, 5 from Irish Republic, and 1 from India) killed because they were mistaken for Catholic civilians, or associated with Catholic civilians.

Unintended Targests
Catholic civilians killed during attacks on Republican paramilitary personnel

6

Catholic civilians killed during attacks on Nationalist / Republican politicians

8

Protestant civilian killed during attack on British Forces

1

Protestant civilian killed during attack on an alleged informer

1

Total

16

Premature Bomb Explosions
Ulster Defence Association (UDA) members

8

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) members

15

Non-specific Loyalist group members

2

Catholic civilian

1

Total

26

Civilians in the Irish Republic
Total

46

Loyalist Feuds
(Includes UDA/UVF feud 1974-1977, Intra loyalist feud 2000-2001, and internal UDA and UVF disputes)
Ulster Defence Association (UDA) members killed

26

Former Ulster Defence Association (xUDA) members killed

3

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) members killed

21

Former Ulster Volunteer Force (xUVF) members killed

1

Red Hand Commando (RHC) members killed
2
Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) member killed
1
Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) members

2

Protestant civilian

2

Total

58

Others
Civilians during armed robberies

9

Civilians during punishment attacks

4

Civilians working during Loyalist strike *

2

Catholic journalist **

1

Precise reason for killing not known

45

Total

61

Note:
* A fireman and a bus driver
** Martin O’Hagan killed 28 September 2001


BRITISH FORCES KILLINGS (363)

British Forces have killed a total of 363. This figure includes 8 killings carried out by off duty personnel. The British Army (BA) has killed 297, and a further 8 killings have been carried out by the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) / Royal Irish Regiment (RIR). 55 killings have been carried out by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), and 1 killing carried out by the British Police in Britain. The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) or “B” Specials, have killed 1 person, and the Royal Air Force (RAF) has also killed 1 person. All British Forces killings have been grouped together in the tables below.

Republican Paramilitary Personnel
Irish Republican Army (IRA) members

124

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) members

11

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) members

10

Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO) member

1

Total

146

Loyalist Paramilitary Personnel
Ulster Defence Association (UDA) members

10

Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) members

8

Total

18

Civilians
Shot while in immediate vicinity of gun battle with Republican paramilitary forces

13

Killed while in immediate vicinity of street disturbances

26

Killed by special undercover units because mistaken for Republican paramilitary forces

7

Killed during altercation with British Forces patrol

10

Killed by rubber or plastic bullet *

16

Shot while engaged in criminal activity **

30

No obvious pattern of circumstances and/or reason for killing unknown

84

Total

186

Note:
* Excludes one IRA member who is included in Republican Paramilitary Personnel killed by British Forces;
** Of these, 15 were involved in robberies and15 were travelling in stolen cars.

Other British Forces
Off duty British Forces (assumed to have been Republicans or civilians)

5

On duty British Forces, shot in error, (mistaken for Republican Paramilitary Personnel)

4

Undercover British Forces, shot in error, during covert military operation

3

British soldier on leave, shot during street disturbances

1

Total

13


Killings by Military and Paramilitary Groups (1969-2001)

Republican Paramilitary Groups
Irish Republican Army (IRA) (includes 88 by non-specific Republican group since 1970)

1,823

Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) (includes 3 by non-specific Republican group during 1969)

56

Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)

123

Irish People’s Liberation Organisation (IPLO)

24

Saor Eire (SE)

3

Real Irish Republican Army (rIRA)

29

Total

2,058

Loyalist Paramilitary Groups
Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) (includes RHC, PAF, and PAG)

483

Ulster Defence Association (UDA) (includes UFF and LRDG)

262

Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)

18

Red Hand Defenders (RHD)

8

Non-specific Loyalist group (LOY)

256

Total

1,027

British Forces
British Army (BA)

297

Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR)

8

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

55

Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) (“B” Specials)

1

Royal Air Force (RAF)

1

British Police

1

Total

363

Irish Forces
Garda Síochána

4

Irish Army

1

Total

5

Others (Unable or impossible to identify killing group)
Total

79

Cumulative Total (1969 to 31 December 2001)
Total

3,532

Geographical Location of Killings (1969 – 2001)
Northern Ireland

3,272

Irish Republic

117

Britain

125

Elsewhere in Europe

18

Total

3,532


IRISH REPUBLIC’S FORCES (5)

The Irish Republic’s armed forces have killed 2 members of the IRA, 1 during an attempted escape from a prison (1975), and 1 during an armed robbery (1988). They have killed 2 members of the INLA, 1 during a gun battle (1987), and 1 also during an armed robbery (1997). They have also killed 1 member of the rIRA, again during an armed robbery (1998).


OTHERS (79)

A further 79 people have been killed. This figure includes 12 Republican prisoners who have died while on hunger strike, 2 in Britain in 1974 and 1976, and 10 in Northern Ireland during 1981. It is impossible to attribute a killing to any particular military group in 24 cases, were the death occurred during street disturbances, or a political/military incident. This leaves 43 killings for which it is not possible with the information available to identify the responsible group.

Tabulations (Tables) of Basic Variables

Gender of the person killed

Age of the person killed

Age Group of the person killed

Religion of the person killed

Summary of Religion of the person killed

Status of the person killed

Summary of Status of the person killed

Organisation responsible for the death

Summary of Organisation responsible for the death

Geographical location of the death

Year of the death

Month of the death

Day (of month) of the death

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