Tag Archives: Malcolm Jenkinson

18th June – Deaths & Events in Northern Ireland Troubles

Key Events & Deaths on this day in Northern Ireland Troubles

18th June

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Wednesday 18 June 1969

A report was published by the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) on the British government’s policy in Northern Ireland.

The report was critical of both the British government and the Northern Ireland government.

Thursday 18 June 1970

Westminster General Election

A general election was held across the United Kingdom with the Conservative Party replacing the Labour Party to form the government at Westminster.

Edward Heath became Prime Minister.

Reginald Maudling, was appointed as Home Secretary and had responsibility for Northern Ireland.

In Northern Ireland the Unionist Party held ‘only’ eight of the 12 seats.

Ian Paisley, gained North Antrim, Frank McManus, a Nationalist unity candidate, gained Fermanagh-South Tyrone, Gerry Fitt held West Belfast and Bernadette Devlin held Mid-Ulster.

Friday 18 June 1971

Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and Nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) refuse to attend the state opening of Stormont.

Sunday 18 June 1972

  

Arthur McMillan & Colin Leslie

(Two of the murdered soldiers)

Three members of the British Army were killed by an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb in a derelict house near Lurgan, County Down.

Wednesday 18 June 1975

At Westminster a Bill was introduced to make amendments to the Northern Ireland Emergency Provision Act (1973).

The main amendment had the effect of giving control of detention to the Secretary of State.

Sunday 18 June 1978

Hugh Murphy, then a Catholic priest was kidnapped in retaliation for the abduction of a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer the day before, 17 June 1978.

The kidnappers issued a statement saying that they would return the priest in the same condition as the RUC officer is returned.

A number of Protestant ministers appealed for the priest to be released and he was subsequently returned unharmed.

[On 10 July 1978 the body of Officer Turbitt was discovered. In December 1978 three RUC officers were charged with kidnapping the Catholic priest. The same officers were also charged, along with two additional officers, of killing a Catholic shopkeeper in Ahoghill on 19 April 1977.]

Wednesday 18 July 1979

Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), tried to interrupt Jack Lynch, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister) and President of the European Council, but was shouted down by other Members of the European Parliament (MEPs).

Wednesday 18 June 1980

 Hunger Strike.]

Friday 18 June 1982

Lord Gowrie, then a Northern Ireland Office (NIO) Minister, was quoted as saying:

“Northern Ireland is extremely expensive on the British taxpayer … if the people of Northern Ireland wished to join with the South of Ireland, no British government would resist it for twenty minutes.”

Tuesday 18 June 1991

An additional 500 British Army soldiers arrived in Northern Ireland bringing the total number deployed to approximately 11,000.

Friday 18 June 1993

President Shakes Adams’ Hand

Mary Robinson, then President of the Republic of Ireland, paid an unofficial visit to community groups in Belfast.

The visit went ahead against the wishes of the British government and the Northern Ireland Office (NIO). During the visit Robinson met Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), and shook his hand.

[This gesture provoked a lot of criticism amongst Unionists.]

Robinson also visited Coalisland, in County Tyrone.

Saturday 18 June 1994

Loughlinisland Killings

Loughinisland

The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed six Catholic men and wounded five others in a gun attack on a bar in Loughlinisland, County Down.

The people in the bar were watching a televised World Cup football match when the gunmen entered.

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[The attack was widely condemned. Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, said that the “moral squalor” of the killers was beyond description. Dick Spring, then Tánaiste (deputy Irish Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs), said it was a “night of savagery”.]

See Loughlinisland Massacre

Shots were fired into the home of a Catholic family in Lisburn, County Antrim.

Sunday 18 June 1995

The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) rerouted an Orange Order parade away from the Nationalist area of the lower Ormeau Road, Belfast.

Tuesday 18 June 1996

Parts of the centre of Dublin were evacuated in a bomb hoax which was believed to have been made by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF).

Friday 18 June 1999

lee glegg

Lee Clegg, then a soldier in the Parachute Regiment, was sentenced to four years for attempting to wound Martin Peake with intent in west Belfast on 30 September 1990.

Clegg was however immediately released because of the time he had already served in prison.

[Clegg was originally convicted of the murder of Karen Reilly during the same incident but was cleared on appeal on 11 March 1999.]

See Lee Clegg

Baroness May Blood

Three people from Northern Ireland were appointed as Working Peers by the Labour government. They were John Laird, a former Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Stormont MP; Dennis Rogan, then UUP Chairman; and May Bloody, then a Shankill Road community worker.

James McCarry, then a Sinn Féin Councillor, became the first Republican to obtain a firearms licence following the personal intervention of Marjorie (Mo) Mowlam, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland.

Monday 18 June 2001

New Political Talks

Tony Blair, then British Prime Minister, and Bertie Ahern, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), launched another attempt to find a resolution of the outstanding issues in the peace process. The two leaders held talks with represetatives of the three main pro-Agreement parties: the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Sinn Féin (SF).

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Remembering all innocent victims of the Troubles

Today is the anniversary of the death of the following people killed as a results of the conflict in Northern Ireland

“To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die

– Thomas Campbell

To the innocent on the list – Your memory will live forever

– To the Paramilitaries –

There are many things worth living for, a few things worth dying for, but nothing worth killing for.

13   People lost their lives on the 18th June between 1972 – 1994

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18 June 1972


Arthur McMillan   (37)

nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed by booby trap bomb in derelict house, Bleary, near Lurgan, County Down.

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18 June 1972
Ian Mutch  (31)

nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed by booby trap bomb in derelict house, Bleary, near Lurgan, County Down

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18 June 1972


Colin Leslie  (26)

nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed by booby trap bomb in derelict house, Bleary, near Lurgan, County Down.

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18 June 1974


 John Forsythe  (30)

Protestant
Status: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed by booby trap bomb while on Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) foot patrol, in entry off Market Street, Lurgan, County Armagh.

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18 June 1976
Robert Craven  (51)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: non-specific Loyalist group (LOY)
Killed in bomb attack on Conway’s Bar, Greencastle, Belfast.

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18 June 1982
Albert White  (60)

Catholic
Status: ex-Royal Ulster Constabulary (xRUC),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Civilian employed by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). Shot while driving his car, near to his home, Balmoral Park, Newry, County Down.

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18 June 1985


William Gilliland  (39)

Protestant
Status: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed in land mine attack on Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) mobile patrol, Coragh Glebe, near Kinawley, County Fermanagh.

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18 June 1994


Adrian Rogan   (34)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Malcolm Jenkinson  (52)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Barney Greene   (87)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Daniel McCreanor  (59)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Patrick O’Hare   (35)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Eamon Byrne   (39)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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Loughinisland UVF Massacre – 18th June 1994

Loughinisland Massacre

Also known as The World Cup Massacre

victims collage.jpg

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– Disclaimer –

The views and opinions expressed in this blog post are soley intended to educate and provide background information to those interested in the Troubles of Northern Ireland. They in no way reflect my own opinions and I take no responsibility for any inaccuracies or factual errors.

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The Loughinisland massacre took place on 18 June 1994 in the small village of Loughinisland, County Down, Northern Ireland. Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a loyalist paramilitary group, burst into a pub with assault rifles and fired on the customers , killing six civilians and wounding five. The pub was targeted because it was frequented mainly by Catholics,  and was crowded with people watching the Republic of Ireland team playing in the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

1994 FIFA World Cup logo.svg

It is thus sometimes called the World Cup massacre.

The attack was claimed as retaliation for the killing of three UVF members by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA).

See Trevor ( Kingso) King

Allegations persist that police (Royal Ulster Constabulary) double agents or informers were linked to the massacre and that police protected those informers by destroying evidence and failing to carry out a proper investigation.

At the request of the victims’ families, the Police Ombudsman investigated the police. The Ombudsman concluded that there were major failings in the police investigation, but no evidence that police colluded with the UVF.

However, the Ombudsman did not investigate the role of informers and the report was branded a whitewash. Ombudsman investigators demanded to be disassociated from the report because their original findings “were dramatically altered without reason”, and they believed key intelligence had been deliberately withheld from them.

This led to the report being quashed, the Ombudsman being replaced and a new inquiry ordered.  In June 2016, a new Police Ombudsman report was released indicating that there had been “collusion” between the police and the UVF, but that the police had no advance knowledge of the attack.

Loughinisland massacre
Loughinisland - geograph.org.uk - 199475.jpg

 
Location The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down, Northern Ireland
Coordinates 54°20′17″N 5°49′30″W / 54.33806°N 5.82500°W / 54.33806; -5.82500Coordinates: 54°20′17″N 5°49′30″W / 54.33806°N 5.82500°W / 54.33806; -5.82500
Date 18 June 1994
10:10pm (GMT)
Attack type
Mass shooting
Weapons Assault rifles
Deaths 6 civilians
Non-fatal injuries
5 civilians
Perpetrator Ulster Volunteer Force

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Background

The UVF’s claimed goal was to combat Irish republicanism – particularly the Provisional IRA – and maintain Northern Ireland‘s status as part of the United Kingdom.

However, most of its victims were Irish Catholic civilians, who were often killed at random.  Whenever it claimed responsibility for attacks, the UVF usually claimed that those targeted were IRA members or were helping the IRA. Other times, attacks on Catholic civilians were claimed as “retaliation” for IRA actions, since the IRA draws almost all its support from the Catholic population.

Since the mid-1960s, the UVF had carried out many gun and bomb attacks on Catholic-owned pubs and there had been many incidents of collusion between the UVF and members of the state security forces. During the early 1990s, loyalists drastically increased their attacks on Catholics and Irish nationalists and – for the first time since the conflict began – were responsible for more deaths than republicans or the security forces.

Trevor King UVF Mural

Mural for Trevor King & Other UVF Members

On 16 June 1994, the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) shot dead three UVF members – Trevor King, Colin Craig and David Hamilton – on the Shankill Road in Belfast. The following day, the UVF launched two ‘retaliatory’ attacks. In the first, UVF members shot dead a Catholic civilian taxi driver in Carrickfergus. In the second, they shot dead two Protestant civilians in Newtownabbey, whom they believed were Catholics.

The Loughinisland shootings, a day later, are believed to have been further retaliation.

See Trevor ( Kingso) King

Attack on The Heights Bar

The pub in 2009

On the evening of 18 June 1994, about 24 people  were gathered in The Heights bar and lounge watching the Republic of Ireland vs Italy in the World Cup.

At 10:10pm, two UVF members wearing boiler suits and balaclavas walked into the bar and opened fire on the crowd with assault rifles, spraying the small room with more than sixty bullets.

Six men were killed outright,  and five other people were wounded. Witnesses said the gunmen then ran to a getaway car, “laughing”.

One described:

“bodies … lying piled on top of each other on the floor”.

The dead were Adrian Rogan (34), Malcolm Jenkinson (52), Barney Greene (87), Daniel McCreanor (59), Patrick O’Hare (35) and Eamon Byrne (39), all Catholic civilians. O’Hare was the brother-in-law of Eamon Byrne and Greene was one of the oldest people to be killed during the Troubles.

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Victims

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18 June 1994


Adrian Rogan   (34)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Malcolm Jenkinson  (52)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Barney Greene   (87)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Daniel McCreanor  (59)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Patrick O’Hare   (35)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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18 June 1994


Eamon Byrne   (39)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot, during gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland, County Down.

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Loughinisland

The UVF claimed responsibility within hours of the attack. It claimed that an Irish republican meeting was being held in the pub and that the shooting was retaliation for the INLA attack.

However, police said there is no evidence that The Heights Bar had any links to republican paramilitary activity. Journalist Peter Taylor suggested in his book Loyalists that it was not entirely certain that the UVF Brigade Staff (Belfast leadership) had sanctioned the attack, and that it was instead carried out by a local UVF unit. In the event of an “enemy” attack, these UVF units were given freedom to retaliate against what they deemed to be appropriate targets.

An unnamed UVF member told Taylor that the UVF believed IRA members would be in the pub that evening.  The Brigade Staff later assured Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) leader David Ervine that there would never again be another attack such as Loughinisland.

The attack received international media coverage and was widely condemned. Among those who sent messages of sympathy were Pope John Paul II, Queen Elizabeth II and US President Bill Clinton. Local Protestant families visited their wounded neighbours in hospital, expressing their shock and disgust.

Provisional IRA response

The massacre ultimately led to a temporary return to tit-for-tat violence. The following month, the IRA shot dead three high-ranking members of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), the other main loyalist paramilitary group alongside the UVF. It is claimed this was retaliation for the Loughinisland massacre.

The IRA stated that the men were directing the UDA’s campaign of violence against Catholics.

Ray Smallwoods

On 11 July the IRA shot dead Ray Smallwoods, a member of the UDA’s Inner Council and spokesman for its political wing, the Ulster Democratic Party. Six days later, UDA gunmen tried to repeat the Loughinisland massacre when they attacked the Hawthorn Inn at nearby Annaclone.

About 40 people were inside watching the football World Cup final. The pub’s thick doors had been locked and so the gunmen instead fired through the windows, wounding seven people.

Bratty commemorated with other South Belfast UDA members on a Sandy Row plaque

On 31 July, the IRA shot dead UDA commander Joe Bratty and his right-hand man Raymond Elder.

Investigation and campaign by victims’ families

The morning after the attack, the getaway car—a red Triumph Acclaim—was found abandoned in a field near Crossgar.

Sa 58-JH01.jpg

On 4 August, one of the vz. 58 rifles used in the attack was found hidden at a bridge near Saintfield along with a holdall containing boiler suits, balaclavas, gloves, three handguns and ammunition.

In 2006, following claims that “an RUC agent” had supplied the getaway car to the gunmen, the victims’ families lodged an official complaint about the investigation with the Police Ombudsman. The complaint included allegations “that the investigation had not been efficiently or properly carried out; no earnest effort was made to identify those responsible; and there were suspicions of state collusion in the murders”.

It was alleged that police agents or informers within the UVF were linked to the attack, and that the police’s investigation was hindered by its desire to protect those informers. The victims’ families also alleged that the police had failed to keep in contact with them about the investigation, even about significant developments.

It was revealed that the police had destroyed key evidence and documents. The car had been disposed of in April 1995, ten months into the investigation.

In 1998, police documents related to the investigation were destroyed at Gough Barracks RUC station, allegedly because of fears they were contaminated by asbestos. It is believed they included the original notes, made during interviews of suspects in 1994 and 1995.

A hair follicle had been recovered from the car but nobody had yet been charged, while the other items (balaclavas, gloves, etc.) had not been subjected to new tests made possible by advances in forensic science.

It was alleged that the rifle used in the attack had been part of a shipment smuggled into Northern Ireland for loyalists by British agent   Brian Nelson.

Brian_Nelson_Loyalist

 

See Brian Nelson

A key eyewitness claimed she gave police a description of the getaway driver within hours of the massacre, but that police failed to record important information she gave them and never asked her to identify suspects. A serving policeman later gave the woman’s personal details to a relative of the suspected getaway driver. Police then visited her and advised her to increase her security for fear she could be shot.

 

The Office of the Police Ombudsman, which investigated the police over the massacre

In 2008 it was revealed that, since the shootings, up to 20 people had been arrested for questioning but none had ever been charged.

In January 2010 a reserve Police Service of Northern Ireland officer (formerly an RUC officer) was arrested by detectives from the Police Ombudsman’s Office and questioned over “perverting the course of justice” and “aiding the killers’ escape”.

Later that year, the Public Prosecution Service (PPS) concluded there wasn’t enough evidence to prosecute. In reply, the Ombudsman’s Office said it would consider disciplinary action against the officer.

Police Ombudsman’s report and aftermath

In September 2009 it was revealed that a Police Ombudsman’s report on the killings was to be published on 15 September.

At the same time, some details of the report were made known. Police sources said the report would expose the role of four RUC informers in “ordering or organising” the attack. The report was also said to highlight a series of major failings in the police investigation – including that not enough effort was made to identify those responsible, that police failed to speak to people of interest, that key evidence was destroyed and that there was poor record management.

However, shortly after these revelations, the Ombudsman postponed publication of the report as “new evidence” had emerged.

The Ombudsman’s report was finally published on 24 June 2011. It said that the police investigation had lacked “diligence, focus and leadership”; that there were failings in record management; that significant lines of enquiry were not identified; and that police failed to communicate effectively with the victims’ families.

However, it said that there was “insufficient evidence of collusion” and “no evidence that police could have prevented the attack”.

Margaret ritchie.jpg

Margaret Ritchie

The report was harshly criticized for not investigating the role of RUC informers inside the UVF. Social Democratic and Labour Party leader Margaret Ritchie said the findings were flawed and contrary “to a mountain of evidence of collusion”. She added: “It completely lets down the victims’ families and the wider community. Al Hutchinson paints a picture of an incompetent keystone cops type of police force when the reality was that the RUC and Special Branch were rotten to the core”.

Niall Murphy, the solicitor for the victims’ relatives, described the report’s findings as “timid, mild and meek”. He added: “The ombudsman has performed factual gymnastics to ensure there was no evidence of collusion in his conclusion”. The relatives stated that they believe the report proves police colluded with those involved and made “no real attempt to catch the killers”.

After the report’s publication, there were calls for Al Hutchinson to resign, and the victims’ families began a High Court challenge to have the report’s findings quashed.

In September 2011, the Criminal Justice Inspectorate (CJI) criticized Hutchinson and recommended that the Ombudsman’s Office be suspended from investigating historic murders because its independence had been compromised. CJI inspectors found “major inconsistencies” in the Ombudsman’s report. Ombudsman investigators had demanded to be disassociated from the report because their original findings “were dramatically altered without reason”. Ombudsman investigators also believed that key intelligence had been deliberately withheld from them.

In 2012, the Belfast High Court quashed the report’s findings and Hutchinson was replaced by Michael Maguire, who ordered a new inquiry into the massacre.

Maguire, after investigating the killings, stated with regard to the RUC police force colluding with the murderers: “I have no hesitation in unambiguously determining that collusion is a significant feature of the Loughinisland murders.” He said the VZ58 rifle used in the attack was part of a shipment of weapons brought by loyalist paramilitaries into Northern Ireland late 1987 or early 1988.

Responding to Mafuire’s report, Foreign Minister Flanagan said : “The Ombudsman’s findings are deeply disturbing – in particular his determination that ‘collusion is a significant feature of the Loughinisland murders.

Commemoration

On the 18th anniversary of the attack, the Republic of Ireland football team again played Italy – this time in the Euro 2012 at Poznań, Poland. The Irish team wore black armbands during the match, to commemorate those killed while watching the same teams playing 18 years before. The idea was proposed by the Football Association of Ireland (FAI) and backed by UEFA. Some prominent loyalists berated the move. South Belfast UDA brigadier Jackie McDonald said that it was “bringing politics into sport” and would lead to “dire repercussions” for football.

Another leading loyalist, Winston Churchill Rea, also raised concerns about the tribute. However, the victims’ families fully supported the gesture.

On 29 April 2014, ESPN, as part of their 30 for 30 series, broadcast a documentary about the shootings, named “Ceasefire Massacre”.

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ESPN – 30 For 30 – Soccer Stories – Ceasefire Massacre

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See Trevor ( Kingso) King

See UVF Page

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