Tag Archives: Birmingham Pub Bombs

21st November – Deaths & Events in Northern Ireland Troubles

Key Events & Deaths on this day in Northern Ireland Troubles

21st November

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Wednesday 21 November 1973

Executive Agreed Agreement was reached between various political parties about the establishment of a power-sharing Executive to govern Northern Ireland. William Whitelaw, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, appeared on the steps of Stormont (with tears in his eyes) following the final negotiations. The Executive was to consist of 11 members.

[The actual composition was to be 6 Faulknerite Unionists, 4 Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and 1 Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI). There were also to be 4 non-executive office holders who would not have a vote: 2 SDLP, 1 Unionist, and 1 APNI.] [ Political Developments. ]

Thursday 21 November 1974

See Birmingham Pub Bombing

Birmingham Pub Bombs The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted bombs in two public houses, the Mulberry Bush and the Tavern in the Town in Birmingham and killed a total of 21 civilians (two of whom died in the weeks following the explosions).

[There was widespread outrage amongst the general public and the British government came under pressure to be seen to be acting against the threat of further bombs. On 29 November 1974 the Prevention of Terrorism Act was passed. Six Irish men, the ‘Birmingham Six‘, were arrested and convicted of causing the explosions and served 16 years in prison before being freed on appeal on 14 March 1991.]

A Protestant civilian was found shot dead in Belfast. It was not clear who was responsible for the killing.

Wednesday 21 December 1977

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of fire-bomb attacks on hotels in Northern Ireland and damaged five hotels.

Wednesday 21 November 1984

[It was reported that Garret FitzGerald, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), had told a Fine Gael party meeting that the behaviour of Margaret Thatcher, then British Prime Minister, during the press conference on 19 November 1984 had been “gratuitously offensive”. In his autobiography FitzGerald maintained that he was commenting on the fact that he “… recognised that her remarks were seen as gratuitously offensive …” (FitzGerald, 1992; p525).]

Thursday 21 November 1985

In the Republic of Ireland there was a vote in the Dáil on the Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA). Although Fianna Fáil (FF) voted against the Agreement the motion was passed by 88 votes to 75. Charles Haughey, then leader of FF, said he would not oppose developments that were of benefit to Nationalists living in Northern Ireland.

Friday 21 November 1986

The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) held its annual conference in Newcastle, County Down. The delegates rejected Unionist calls for a suspension of the Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA).

Thursday 21 November 1991

The report of the British Attitudes Survey showed that, of those questioned, 60 per cent were in favour of the withdrawal of British troops from Northern Ireland, and 56 per cent were in favour of the reunification of Ireland.

Sunday 21 November 1993

A rally in support of the Hume-Adams Initiative was held on the Falls Road in west Belfast. Approximately 2,000 attended the event.

Tuesday 21 November 1995

A small bomb, described as a “crude device”, exploded outside the courthouse in Omagh, County Tyrone.

Thursday 21 November 1996

The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) left a bomb, which failed to explode, in Derry.

Saturday 21 November 1998

For the first time in 28 years Linfield football club, considered a ‘Protestant club’, played at the ground of Cliftonville football club, considered a mainly ‘Catholic club’.

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Remembering all innocent victims of the Troubles

Today is the anniversary of the death of the following  people killed as a results of the conflict in Northern Ireland

“To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die

– Thomas Campbell

To the innocent on the list – Your memory will live  forever

– To  the Paramilitaries  –

There are many things worth living for, a few things worth dying for, but nothing worth killing for.

27 People lost their lives on the 21st November between 1972 – 1992

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 21 November 1972
Joseph McIlroy,  (30)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
Shot at his home, Sandhill Drive, Bloomfield, Belfast.

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21 November 1974


 William Burns,  (39)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: not known (nk)
Found shot in his car, Apsley Street, Donegall Pass, Belfast.

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21 November 1974
Stanley Bodman, (51)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Trevor Thrupp,  (33)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
James Caddick,  (40)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
John Rowlands,  (46)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Pamela Palmer,   (19)

7nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Paul Davies,  (20)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Neil Marsh ,  (20)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Jane Davis,  (17)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Eugene Reilly,  (23)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Desmond Reilly,   (20)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Lynn Bennett,  (18)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Stephen Whalley,   (21)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Marilyn Nash,(22)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ), K

illed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Anne Hayes, (19)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Maureen Roberts,   (20)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Michael Beasley,   (30)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974


Maxine Hambleton,   (18)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
John Jones,  (51)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Charles Grey,  (44)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England.

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21 November 1974
Thomas Chaytor,  (28)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Injured when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England. He died 28 November 1974.

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21 November 1974
James Craig,   (34)

nfNIB
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Injured when bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two public houses, Mulberry Bush and Tavern in the Town, Birmingham, England. He died 10 December 1974.

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21 November 1975
Simon Francis,  (29)

nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed by booby trap bomb hidden in abandoned rifle close to crashed car, Carrive, near Forkhill, County Armagh.

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21 November 1985
Kurt Konig,  (38)

nfNI
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
German businessman. Shot outside his home, Gleneagle’s, Shantallow, Derry. Contractor to British Army (BA) / Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) .

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21 November 1988


William Monteith,  (59)

Protestant
Status: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Shot while at security barrier, The Diamond, Castlederg, County Tyrone.

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21 November 1992
Gerard Holmes,  (35)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Found shot, in entry off Rinmore Drive, Creggan, Derry. Alleged informer.

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6th September – Deaths & Events in Northern Ireland Troubles

6th September

Key Events & Deaths on this day in Northern Ireland Troubles

Monday 6 September 1971

A 14 year old girl was shot dead by a British soldier in Derry. Edward Heath, then British Prime Minister, met with Jack Lynch, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), at Chequers in England to discuss the situation in Northern Ireland.

William Craig and Ian Paisley spoke at a rally at Victoria Park in Belfast before a crowd of approximately 20,000 people. They called for the establishment of a ‘third force’ to defend ‘Ulster’ This was taken to mean the establishment of a paramilitary force in addition to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and British Army.

Wednesday 6 September 1978

Adams Cleared of IRA Membership Gerry Adams, then Vice-President of Sinn Féin (SF), was cleared of a charge of membership of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) when the Judge hearing the case ruled that there was insufficient evidence to prove that he was a member of the organisation.

Sunday 6 September 1981

Laurence McKeown Hungry Striker

The family of Laurence McKeown, then on day 70 of his hunger strike, intervened and asked for medical treatment to save his life. The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) issued a statement saying that it would not replace men on hunger strike at the same rate as before.

[At this stage the INLA had only 28 prisoners in the Maze Prison compared to the Irish Republican Army (IRA) which had approximately 380 prisoners.]

Cahal Daly, then Catholic Bishop of Down and Connor, called on Republican prisoners to end the hunger strike.

Thursday 6 September 1984

The government announced that the proposed project to build a pipe-line to bring natural gas from the Republic of Ireland to Northern Ireland would be cancelled. It was also announced that subsidies to the ‘town gas’ industry in Northern Ireland would end with the loss of 1,000 jobs.

Sunday 6 September 1987

Chris Mullin, then English Labour Party Member of Parliament (MP), claimed that he had tracked down and interviewed those who were really responsible for the Birmingham pub bombs.


See: Birmingham Pub Bombings – 21st November, 1974

Tuesday 6 September 1988

A loyalist paramilitary gun ‘factory’ was discovered by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) near Ballynahinch, County Down.

[A former member of the Ulster Defense Regiment (UDR) was jailed for his involvement in the gun ‘factory’ in March 1989.]

Tuesday 6 September 1994

Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), publicly shook hands following a meeting in Dublin. The three leaders issued a joint statement. Andrew Hunter, then MP and Chairman of the Conservative Party’s Committee on Northern Ireland, described the meeting as a “dangerous miscalculation” by Reynolds. John Major, then British Prime Minister, cut short a meeting he was having with Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), at Downing Street.

[It was reported that Major told Paisley, and the other DUP members, to leave after they refused to accept his word that he had not made a secret deal with the Irish Republican Army (IRA).]

Wednesday 6 September 1995

Johnny Adair, believed to be a leader of one of the six brigades of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), was sentenced to 16 years imprisonment for directing the activities of the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the UDA.

Friday 6 September 1996

The Forum met for business after a break for the summer. The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and Sinn Féin (SF) did not attend.

Monday 6 September 1999

Start of Mitchell Review of the Good Friday Agreement George Mitchell, former Chairman of the multi-party talks, was in Castle Buildings to open the Review of the Good Friday Agreement. He made clear that the review would concentrate specifically on breaking the deadlock over decommissioning and the formation of an Executive. The talks adjourned until the following week to give politicians time to study the Patten report on policing. Bertie Ahern, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), held discussions with Tony Blair, then British Prime Minister, to review the political situation in Northern Ireland.

Thursday 6 September 2001

Loyalists held another protest on the Ardoyne Road in north Belfast as Catholic parents and their children made their way to Holy Cross Girls’ Primary School. The protest was peaceful but very noisy as protesters used air horns (klaxons), blew whistles, and banged metal bin lids, as the children passed along the security cordon.

Four parents in the ‘Right to Education’ group were warned by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) that death threats had been made against them by the Red Hand Defenders (RHD), a cover name that has been used by members of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). The RHD said they would be killed if they were seen taking their children to the school.

John Reid, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, cut short his holiday and returned to Northern Ireland because of the situation in north Belfast. There was much less violence in the area overnight than on previous nights.

An Orange Order hall was damaged in an arson attack in Warrenpoint, County Down. Sean Neeson, then leader of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI), announced that he was stepping down as party leader.

[It is expected that a new leader will be appointed in October.]


Remembering all innocent victims of the Troubles

Today is the anniversary of the follow  people killed as a results of the conflict in Northern Ireland

To the innocent on the list – Your memory will life forever

– To  the Paramilitaries  –

“There are many things worth living for, a few things worth dying for, but nothing worth killing for.

6 People lost their lives on the 6th September  between 1971 – 1983

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06 September 1971


Annette Annette  (14)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot during street disturbances, while standing at the corner of Blucher Street and Westland Street, Derry.

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06 September 1972
Samuel Boyde,   (20)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Found shot in entry off La Salle Drive, Falls, Belfast.

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06 September 1972
William Moore,   (20)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: not known (nk)
Shot from passing car while walking along Castlereagh Street, Belfast.

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06 September 1972
Bridget Breen,  (33)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: non-specific Loyalist group (LOY)
Killed by bomb thrown into the home of James O’Kane, Republican Labour Party Councillor, Cedar Avenue, off Antrim Road, Belfast.

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06 September 1974

William Elliott,  (48)

Protestant
Status: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC),

Killed by: Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA)
Shot during armed robbery at Ulster Bank, The Diamond, Rathcoole, Newtownabbey, County Antrim.

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06 September 1983

John Wasson, (61)

Catholic
Status: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC),

Killed by: Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)
Off duty. Shot outside his home, Dukes Grove, off Cathedral Road, Armagh.

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Main source CAIN Web Service

Major Events in the Troubles

See: Birmingham Pub Bombs

See: 7th September