Tag Archives: Battle of Boyne

9th August – Deaths & Events in Northern Ireland Troubles

9th August

Key Events & Deaths on this day in Northern Ireland Troubles

Monday 9 August 1971

Internment

Operation Demetrius

Operation Demetrius was a British Army operation in Northern Ireland on 9–10 August 1971, during the Troubles. It involved the mass arrest and internment (imprisonment without trial) of 342 people suspected of being involved with the Irish Republican Army (IRA), which was waging a campaign against the state. It was proposed by the Northern Ireland Government and approved by the British Government. Armed soldiers launched dawn raids throughout Northern Ireland, sparking four days of violence in which 20 civilians, two IRA members and two British soldiers were killed. All of those arrested were Catholic Irish nationalists. Due to faulty intelligence, many had no links with the IRA. Ulster loyalist paramilitaries were also carrying out acts of violence, which were mainly directed against Catholics and Irish nationalists, but no loyalists were included in the sweep

See below for additional details on Internment

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Internment, 17 People Killed

In a series of raids across Northern Ireland, 342 people were arrested and taken to makeshift camps as Internment was re-introduced in Northern Ireland. There was an immediate upsurge of violence and 17 people were killed during the next 48 hours. Of these 10 were Catholic civilians who were shot dead by the British Army (BA).

Hugh Mullan (38) was the first Catholic priest to be killed in the conflict when he was shot dead by the British Army as he was giving the last rites to a wounded man.

Winston Donnell (22) became the first Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) solider to die in ‘the Troubles’ when he was shot by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Clady, County Tyrone.

[There were more arrests in the following days and months. Internment was to continue until 5 December 1975. During that time 1,981 people were detained; 1,874 were Catholic / Republican, while 107 were Protestant / Loyalist. Internment had been proposed by Unionist politicians as the solution to the security situation in Northern Ireland but was to lead to a very high level of violence over the next few years and to increased support for the IRA. Even members of the security forces remarked on the drawbacks of internment.]

Wednesday 9 August 1972

There was widespread and severe rioting in Nationalist areas on the anniversary of the introduction of Internment.

Friday 9 August 1974

A report on the Dublin bombings investigation was completed by the Garda Síochána (the Irish police).

[A number of further inquiries were carried out by the Garda Síochána between 1974 and 1976 but nothing of consequence resulted.]

Tuesday 9 August 1977

The Queen began a two-day visit to Northern Ireland as part of her jubilee celebrations. It was the first visit by the Queen for 11 years.

Saturday 9 August 1980

Following protests on the ninth anniversary of Internment there was continuing violence and three people were killed and 18 injured in a number of incidents.

Sunday 9 August 1981

Liam Canning (19), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a covername used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), as he walked along Alliance Avenue, Ardoyne, Belfast.

Peter Maguinness (41), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by a plastic bullet fired by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) while he was outside his home on the Shore Road, Greencastle, Belfast.

There were continuing riots in Nationalist areas of Northern Ireland.

Tuesday 9 August 1983

In the run-up to the anniversary of the introduction of Internment in 1971 there was rioting in Nationalist areas of Belfast. A young Catholic man was shot dead by a British soldier following an altercation between local people and a British Army (BA) foot patrol on the Whiterock Road, Ballymurphy, Belfast.

Thursday 9 August 1984

Martin Galvin, then leader of NORAID (Irish Northern Aid Committee), appeared at a rally in Derry despite being banned from the UK.

Galvin appeared at another rally in Belfast on 12 August 1984.

Wednesday 9 August 1989

Seamus Duffy (15) was killed by a plastic bullet fired by a member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).

Friday 9 August 1991

Garry Lynch (28), who was an election worker with the Ulster Democratic Party (UDP), was shot dead in an attack at his workplace in Derry.

Wednesday 9 August 1995

Albert Reynolds, the former Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), said that the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons had not been highlighted in the talks leading to the Downing Street Declaration. He further stated that if the issue had been raised he would not have signed the Declaration.

Monday 19 August 1996

Jimmy Smith, one of those who had escaped from the Maze prison in 1983, was extradited from the United States of America.

Saturday 9 August 1997

The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) planted a hoax van bomb on Craigavon Bridge in Derry, prior to the start of the Apprentice Boys’ parade through the city. When the march got underway there were disturbances when Loyalist bandsmen broke ranks to attack Nationalist residents who were observing the parade. An Apprentice Boys’ parade through Dunloy, County Antrim, was rerouted by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).

The Royal Black Preceptory decided to cancel a parade in Newtownbutler, County Fermanagh, because of protests by the Nationalist residents of the village.

Monday 9 August 1999

The Director of Public Prosecutions decided not to press charges against Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers who were accused of assaulting David Adams, an Irish Republican Army (IRA) member.

Adams had received £30,000 compensations for injuries, including a broken leg, inflicted upon him while being held in Castlereagh Holding Centre. Adams had been arrested in 1994 and later sentenced to 25 years for conspiracy to murder a senior RUC detective.

A man from north Belfast appeared in Belfast High Court and was charged with the murder of Charles Bennett on 30 July 1999.

The Northern Ireland Parades Commission decided to allow an Apprentice Boys march down the lower Ormeau Road, Belfast, on 14 August 1999 despite the opposition of local Nationalist residents. Delegates from the Apprentice Boys of Derry and the Bogside Residents’ Group met in an effort to reach a compromise on the arrangement for the forthcoming parade in Derry.

Thursday 9 August 2001

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) issued a statement about its meetings with the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD). David Trimble, then leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), said the statement did not go far enough and his party wanted to see a beginning to actual decommissioning.

The UUP and Sinn Féin (SF), and the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), held separate meetings with John Reid, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, at Hillsborough Castle, County Down. The UUP argued for a suspension of the institutions of devolved government, whereas SF favoured fresh elections to the Assembly.

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Remembering all innocent victims of the Troubles

Today is the anniversary of the death of the following people killed as a results of the conflict in Northern Ireland

“To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die

– Thomas Campbell

To the innocent on the list – Your memory will live forever

– To the Paramilitaries –

There are many things worth living for, a few things worth dying for, but nothing worth killing for.

.26 People lost their lives on the 9th August between 1971 – 1991

9th August

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09 August 1971
William Atwell,  (40)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: non-specific Republican group (REP)
Security man. Killed by nail bomb thrown into Mackie’s factory, Springfield Road, Belfast.

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09 August 1971
 Sarah Worthington,  (50)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot in her home, Velsheda Park, Ardoyne, Belfast.

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09 August 1971
Leo McGuigan,   (16)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot while walking along Estoril Park, Ardoyne, Belfast.

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09 August 1971

Patrick McAdorey,   (24)

Catholic
Status: Irish Republican Army (IRA),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot during gun battle, Alliance Avenue, Ardoyne, Belfast.

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09 August 1971
John Beattie,  (17)

Protestant
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot, from British Army (BA) observation post in Clonard Monastery, while driving van along Ashmore Street, Shankill, Belfast.

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09 August 1971

Francis Quinn,   (20)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot during gun battle, Springfield Park, Ballymurphy, Belfast, by BA snipers from the nearby New Barnsley British Army (BA) base, while going to the aid of a wounded man.

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09 August 1971

Hugh Mullan,  (38)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Catholic Priest. Shot during gun battle, Springfield Park, Ballymurphy, Belfast, by BA snipers from the nearby New Barnsley British Army (BA) base, while going to the aid of a wounded man.

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09 August 1971
Francis McGuinness,   (17)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot during street disturbances, Finaghy Road North, Belfast.

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09 August 1971

Desmond Healey, (14)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot during street disturbances, Lenadoon Avenue, Belfast.

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09 August 1971

 Joan Connolly,   (50)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot as she stood opposite New Barnsley British Army (BA) base, Springfield Road, Belfast.

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09 August 1971
Daniel Teggart,  (44)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot as he stood opposite New Barnsley British Army (BA) base, Springfield Road, Belfast.

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09 August 1971
Noel Phillips,   (20)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot as he stood opposite New Barnsley British Army (BA) base, Springfield Road, Belfast.

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09 August 1971
 Joseph Murphy,  (41)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot as he stood opposite New Barnsley British Army (BA) base, Springfield Road, Belfast. He died on 22 August 1971.

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09 August 1971
Winston Donnell,  (22)

Protestant
Status: Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Shot while at British Army (BA) Vehicle Check Point (VCP), Clady near Strabane, County Tyrone.

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09 August 1972

Colm Murtagh, (24)

Catholic
Status: Irish Republican Army (IRA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Died in premature bomb explosion in garage, Dublin Road, Newry, County Down.

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09 August 1973

 Henry Cunningham,   (17) nfNI
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)
From County Donegal. Shot during gun attack on his firm’s van, from bridge overlooking the M2 motorway, near Templepatrick, County Antrim.

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09 August 1977

Paul McWilliams,  (16)

Catholic
Status: Irish Republican Army Youth Section (IRAF),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot from British Army (BA) observation post, in Corry’s Timber Yard, Springhill Avenue, Ballymurphy, Belfast

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09 August 1977
Loius Harrison (20) nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Shot by sniper while standing outside Henry Taggart British Army (BA) base, Springfield Road, Ballymurphy, Belfast.

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09 August 1980
James McCarren,  (19)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)
Shot during sniper attack on British Army (BA) mobile patrol, Shaw’s Road, Andersonstown, Belfast.

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09 August 1980

Brien Brown,   (29) nfNI
Status: British Army (BA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Killed by remote controlled bomb while on British Army (BA) foot patrol, Forkhill, County Armagh.

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09 August 1980

Michael Donnelly,  (21)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot by plastic bullet at the junction of Leeson Street and Falls Road, Belfast.

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09 August 1981
Liam Canning,  (19)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF)
Shot while walking along Alliance Avenue, Ardoyne, Belfast.

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09 August 1981

Peter McGuinness,  (41)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)
Shot by plastic bullet outside his home, Shore Road, Greencastle, Belfast.

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09 August 1983

Thomas Reilly,  (22)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: British Army (BA)
Shot during altercation between local people and British Army (BA) foot patrol, Whiterock Road, Ballymurphy, Belfast.

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09 August 1989

Seamus Duffy,   (15)

Catholic
Status: Civilian (Civ),

Killed by: Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)
Shot by plastic bullet while walking along Dawson Street, New Lodge, Belfast

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09 August 1991

 Lynch, Gary (27)  

Protestant
Status: Ulster Defence Association (UDA),

Killed by: Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Also Ulster Democratic Party (UDP) member. Shot at his workplace, Foyle Meats, Lisahally, Derry.

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Operation Demetrius

Internment

Operation Demetrius was a British Army operation in Northern Ireland on 9–10 August 1971, during the Troubles. It involved the mass arrest and internment (imprisonment without trial) of 342 people suspected of being involved with the Irish Republican Army (IRA), which was waging a campaign against the state. It was proposed by the Northern Ireland Government and approved by the British Government. Armed soldiers launched dawn raids throughout Northern Ireland, sparking four days of violence in which 20 civilians, two IRA members and two British soldiers were killed. All of those arrested were Catholic Irish nationalists. Due to faulty intelligence, many had no links with the IRA. Ulster loyalist paramilitaries were also carrying out acts of violence, which were mainly directed against Catholics and Irish nationalists, but no loyalists were included in the sweep.

The introduction of internment, the way the arrests were carried out, and the abuse of those arrested, led to mass protests and a sharp increase in violence. Amid the violence, about 7,000 people fled or were forced out of their homes. The interrogation techniques used on the internees were described by the European Commission of Human Rights in 1976 as torture, but the European Court of Human Rights ruled on appeal in 1978 that while the techniques were “inhuman and degrading”, they did not constitute torture.

It was later revealed that the British Government had withheld information from the ECHR and that a policy of torture had in fact been authorized by British Government ministers. In December 2014 the Irish government asked the European Court of Human Rights to revise its 1978 judgement.

The policy of internment was to last until December 1975 and during that time 1,981 people were interned;1,874 were Catholic/Irish republican, while 107 were Protestant/loyalist. The first Protestant/loyalist internees were detained in February 1973.

Background and planning

Internment had been used a number of times during Northern Ireland‘s (and the Republic of Ireland‘s) history, but had not yet been used during the Troubles, which began in the late 1960s. Ulster loyalist paramilitaries such as the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) had been engaged in a low-level violent campaign since 1966. After the August 1969 riots, the British Army (BA) was deployed on the streets to bolster the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). Up until this point the Irish Republican Army (IRA) had been largely inactive. However, as the violence and political situation worsened, the IRA was divided over how to deal with it. It split into two factions: the Provisional IRA and Official IRA. In 1970–71, the Provisionals launched an armed campaign against the British Army and the RUC. The Officials stated that their policy was one of defence.

During 1970–71 there were numerous clashes between state forces and the two wings of the IRA, and between the IRA and loyalists. Most loyalist attacks were directed against Catholic civilians and the Irish nationalist/republican community, but they also clashed with state forces on a number of occasions.

The idea of re-introducing internment for republican militants came from the unionist government of Northern Ireland, headed by Prime Minister Brian Faulkner. It was agreed to re-introduce internment at a meeting between Faulkner and UK Prime Minister Edward Heath on 5 August 1971. The British cabinet recommended “balancing action”, such as the arrest of loyalist militants, the calling in of weapons held by (generally unionist) rifle clubs in Northern Ireland and an indefinite ban on parades (most of which were held by unionist/loyalist groups). However, Faulkner argued that a ban on parades was unworkable, that the rifle clubs posed no security risk and that there was no evidence of loyalist terrorism

It was eventually agreed that there would be a six-month ban on parades but no targeting of loyalists and that internment would go ahead on 9 August, in an operation carried out by the British Army.

On the initial list of those to be arrested, which was drawn up by RUC Special Branch and MI5, there were 450 names, but only 350 of these were found. Key figures on the list, and many who never appeared on them, had got wind of the swoop before it began. The list included leaders of the non-violent civil rights movement such as Ivan Barr and Michael Farrell. But, as Tim Pat Coogan noted,

What they did not include was a single Loyalist. Although the UVF had begun the killing and bombing, this organisation was left untouched, as were other violent Loyalist satellite organisations such as Tara, the Shankill Defence Association and the Ulster Protestant Volunteers. It is known that Faulkner was urged by the British to include a few Protestants in the trawl but he refused.

In the case brought to the European Commission of Human Rights by the Irish government against the government of the United Kingdom, it was conceded that Operation Demetrius was planned and implemented from the highest levels of the British government and that specially trained personnel were sent to Northern Ireland to familiarize the local forces in what became known as the ‘five techniques‘, methods of interrogation described by opponents as “a euphemism for torture”.

Legal basis

The internments were initially carried out under Regulations 11 and 12 of 1956 and Regulation 10 of 1957 (the Special Powers Regulations), made under the authority of the Special Powers Act. The Detention of Terrorists Order of 7 November 1972, made under the authority of the Temporary Provisions Act, was used after direct rule was instituted.

Internees arrested without trial pursuant to Operation Demetrius could not complain to the European Commission of Human Rights about breaches of Article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) because on 27 June 1957, the UK lodged a notice with the Council of Europe declaring that there was a “public emergency within the meaning of Article 15(1) of the Convention.”

The operation and immediate aftermath

The HMS Maidstone, a prison ship docked at Belfast where many internees were sent

Operation Demetrius began on Monday 9 August at about 4AM.

The operation was in two parts:

In the first wave of raids across Northern Ireland, 342 people were arrested. Many of those arrested reported that they and their families were assaulted, verbally abused and threatened by the soldiers. There were claims of soldiers smashing their way into houses without warning and firing baton rounds through doors and windows. Many of those arrested also reported being ill-treated during their three-day detention at the holding centres. They complained of being beaten, verbally abused, threatened, harassed by dogs, denied sleep, and starved.

Some reported being forced to run a gauntlet of baton-wielding soldiers, being forced to run an ‘obstacle course’, having their heads forcefully shaved, being kept naked, being burnt with cigarettes, having a sack placed over their heads for long periods, having a rope kept around their necks, having the barrel of a gun pressed against their heads, being dragged by the hair, being trailed behind armoured vehicles while barefoot, and being tied to armoured trucks as a human shield.[12][13] Some were hooded, beaten and then thrown from a helicopter. They were told they were hundreds of feet in the air, but were actually only a few feet from the ground.

The operation sparked an immediate upsurge of violence, which was said to be the worst since the August 1969 riots. The British Army came under sustained attack from Irish nationalist/republican rioters and gunmen, especially in Belfast. According to journalist Kevin Myers:

“Insanity seized the city. Hundreds of vehicles were hijacked and factories were burnt. Loyalist and IRA gunmen were everywhere”.

People blocked roads and streets with burning barricades to stop the British Army entering their neighbourhoods. In Derry, barricades were again erected around Free Derry and “for the next 11 months these areas effectively seceded from British control”.  Between 9 and 11 August, 24 people were killed or fatally wounded: 20 civilians (14 Catholics, 6 Protestants), two members of the Provisional IRA (shot dead by the British Army), and two members of the British Army (shot dead by the Provisional IRA).

A mural commemorating those killed in the Ballymurphy Massacre during Operation Demetrius

 

Of the civilians killed, 17 were killed by the British Army and the other three were killed by unknown attackers. In West Belfast’s Ballymurphy housing estate, 11 Catholic civilians were killed by 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment between 9 and 11 August in an episode that has become known as the Ballymurphy Massacre. Another flashpoint was Ardoyne in North Belfast, where soldiers shot dead three people on 9 August.

Many Protestant families fled Ardoyne and about 200 burnt their homes as they left, lest they “fall into Catholic hands”.Protestant and Catholic families fled “to either side of a dividing line, which would provide the foundation for the permanent peaceline later built in the area”.  Catholic homes were burnt in Ardoyne and elsewhere too. About 7000 people, most of them Catholics, were left homeless.

About 2500 Catholic refugees fled south of the border, where new refugee camps were set up.

By 13 August, media reports indicated that the violence had begun to wane, seemingly due to exhaustion on the part of the IRA and security forces.

On 15 August, the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) announced that it was starting a campaign of civil disobedience in response to the introduction of internment. By 17 October, it was estimated that about 16,000 households were withholding rent and rates for council houses as part of the campaign of civil disobedience.

On 16 August, over 8000 workers went on strike in Derry in protest at internment. Joe Cahill, then Chief of Staff of the Provisional IRA, held a press conference during which he claimed that only 30 Provisional IRA members had been intern

On 22 August, in protest against internment, about 130 non-Unionist councillors announced that they would no longer sit on district councils. The SDLP also withdrew its representatives from a number of public bodies. On 19 October, five Northern Ireland Members of Parliament (MPs) began a 48-hour hunger strike against internment. The protest took place near 10 Downing Street in London. Among those taking part were John Hume, Austin Currie, and Bernadette Devlin.

Protests would continue until internment was ended in December 1975.

Long-term effects

Anti-internment mural in the Bogside area of Derry

 

The backlash against internment contributed to the decision of the British Government under Prime Minister Edward Heath to suspend the Northern Ireland Government and replace it with direct rule from Westminster, under the authority of a British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. This took place in 1972.

Following the suspension of the Northern Ireland Government and Parliament, internment was continued by the direct rule administration until 5 December 1975. During this time a total of 1,981 people were interned: 1,874 were from a Catholic or Irish nationalist background, while 107 were from a Protestant or Ulster loyalist background.

Historians generally view the period of internment as inflaming sectarian tensions in Northern Ireland, while failing in its goal of arresting key members of the IRA. Many of the people arrested had no links whatsoever with the IRA, but their names appeared on the list of those to be arrested through bungling and incompetence. The list’s lack of reliability and the arrests that followed, complemented by reports of internees being abused, led to more people identifying with the IRA in the Irish nationalist community and losing hope in other methods.

After Operation Demetrius, recruits came forward in huge numbers to join the Provisional and Official wings of the IRA. Internment also led to a sharp increase in violence. In the eight months before the operation, there were 34 conflict-related deaths in Northern Ireland. In the four months following it, 140 were killed.

A serving officer of the British Royal Marines declared:

It (internment) has, in fact, increased terrorist activity, perhaps boosted IRA recruitment, polarised further the Catholic and Protestant communities and reduced the ranks of the much needed Catholic moderates.

In terms of loss of life, 1972 was the most violent of the Troubles. The fatal march on Bloody Sunday (30 January 1972) in Derry, when 14 unarmed civil rights protesters were shot dead by British paratroopers, was an anti-internment march.

Interrogation of internees

All of those arrested were interrogated by the British Army and RUC. However, twelve internees were then chosen for further “deep interrogation”, using sensory deprivation. This took place at a secret interrogation centre, which was later revealed to be Shackleton Barracks, outside Ballykelly. In October, a further two internees were chosen for deep interrogation. These fourteen became known as “the Hooded Men”, or “the Guineapigs”.

After undergoing the same treatment as the other internees, the men were hooded, handcuffed and flown to the base by helicopter. On the way, soldiers severely beat them and threatened to throw them from the helicopter. When they arrived they were stripped naked, photographed, and examined by a doctor.

For seven days, when not being interrogated, they were kept hooded and handcuffed in a cold cell and subjected to a continuous loud hissing noise. Here they were forced to stand in a stress position for many hours and were repeatedly beaten on all parts of their body. They were deprived of sleep, food and drink. Some of them also reported being kicked in the genitals, having their heads banged against walls, being shot at with blank rounds, and being threatened with injections. The result was severe physical and mental exhaustion, severe anxiety, depression, hallucinations, disorientation and repeated loss of consciousness.

The interrogation methods used on the men became known as the ‘five techniques‘. Training and advice regarding the five techniques came from senior intelligence officials in the British government. The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) defined the five techniques as follows:

  • (a) wall-standing: forcing the detainees to remain for periods of some hours in a “stress position”, described by those who underwent it as being “spreadeagled against the wall, with their fingers put high above the head against the wall, the legs spread apart and the feet back, causing them to stand on their toes with the weight of the body mainly on the fingers”;
  • (b) hooding: putting a black or navy coloured bag over the detainees’ heads and, at least initially, keeping it there all the time except during interrogation;
  • (c) subjection to noise: pending their interrogations, holding the detainees in a room where there was a continuous loud and hissing noise;
  • (d) deprivation of sleep: pending their interrogations, depriving the detainees of sleep;
  • (e) deprivation of food and drink: subjecting the detainees to a reduced diet during their stay at the centre and pending interrogations.

The fourteen Hooded Men were the only internees subjected to the full five techniques. However, over the following months, some internees were subjected to at least one of the five techniques, as well as other interrogation methods. These allegedly included waterboarding,  electric shocks, burning with matches and candles, forcing internees to stand over hot electric fires while beating them, beating and squeezing of the genitals, inserting objects into the anus, injections, whipping the soles of the feet, and psychological abuse such as Russian roulette.

Parker Report

When the interrogation techniques used on the internees became known to the public, there was outrage at the British government, especially from Irish nationalists. In answer to the anger from the public and Members of Parliament, on 16 November 1971, the British government commissioned a committee of inquiry chaired by Lord Parker (the Lord Chief Justice of England) to look into the legal and moral aspects of the ‘five techniques’.

The “Parker Report” was published on 2 March 1972 and found the five techniques to be illegal under domestic law:

10. Domestic Law …(c) We have received both written and oral representations from many legal bodies and individual lawyers from both England and Northern Ireland. There has been no dissent from the view that the procedures are illegal alike by the law of England and the law of Northern Ireland. … (d) This being so, no Army Directive and no Minister could lawfully or validly have authorized the use of the procedures. Only Parliament can alter the law. The procedures were and are illegal.

On the same day (2 March 1972), United Kingdom Prime Minister Edward Heath stated in the House of Commons:

[The] Government, having reviewed the whole matter with great care and with reference to any future operations, have decided that the techniques … will not be used in future as an aid to interrogation… The statement that I have made covers all future circumstances.

As foreshadowed in the Prime Minister’s statement, directives expressly forbidding the use of the techniques, whether alone or together, were then issued to the security forces by the government.  While these are still legally in force and the use of such methods by UK security forces is not officially condoned by the government, the five techniques were still being used by the British Army in 2003.

European Commission of Human Rig

The Irish Government, on behalf of the men who had been subject to the five techniques, took a case to the European Commission on Human Rights (Ireland v. United Kingdom, 1976 Y.B. Eur. Conv. on Hum. Rts. 512, 748, 788-94 (Eur. Comm’n of Hum. Rts.)). The Commission stated that it

…unanimously considered the combined use of the five methods to amount to torture, on the grounds that (1) the intensity of the stress caused by techniques creating sensory deprivation “directly affects the personality physically and mentally”; and (2) “the systematic application of the techniques for the purpose of inducing a person to give information shows a clear resemblance to those methods of systematic torture which have been known over the ages…a modern system of torture falling into the same category as those systems applied in previous times as a means of obtaining information and confessions.

European Court of Human Rights

The Commissions findings were appealed. In 1978, in the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) trial Ireland v. the United Kingdom (Case No. 5310/71), the court ruled:

167. … Although the five techniques, as applied in combination, undoubtedly amounted to inhuman and degrading treatment, although their object was the extraction of confessions, the naming of others and/or information and although they were used systematically, they did not occasion suffering of the particular intensity and cruelty implied by the word torture as so understood. …168. The Court concludes that recourse to the five techniques amounted to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment, which practice was in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights Article 3 (art. 3).

On 8 February 1977, in proceedings before the ECHR, and in line with the findings of the Parker Report and UK Government policy, the Attorney-General of the United Kingdom stated:

The Government of the United Kingdom have considered the question of the use of the ‘five techniques’ with very great care and with particular regard to Article 3 (art. 3) of the Convention. They now give this unqualified undertaking, that the ‘five techniques’ will not in any circumstances be reintroduced as an aid to interrogation.

Later developments

In 2013, declassified documents revealed the existence of the interrogation centre at Ballykelly. It had not been mentioned in any of the inquiries. Human rights group the Pat Finucane Centre accused the British Government of deliberately hiding it from the inquiries and the European Court of Human Rights.

In June 2014, an RTÉ documentary entitled The Torture Files uncovered a letter from the UK Home Secretary Merlyn Rees in 1977 to the then British Prime Minister James Callaghan. It confirmed that a policy of ‘torture’ had in fact been authorized by the British Government’s ministers—specifically the Secretary for Defence Peter Carrington—in 1971, contrary to the knowledge of the Irish government or the ECHR. The letter states:

“It is my view (confirmed by Brian Faulkner before his death) that the decision to use methods of torture in Northern Ireland in 1971/72 was taken by ministers – in particular Lord Carrington, then secretary of state for defence”.

Following the 2014 revelations, the President of Sinn Féin, Gerry Adams, called on the Irish government to bring the case back to the ECHR because the British government, he said,

“lied to the European Court of Human Rights both on the severity of the methods used on the men, their long term physical and psychological consequences, on where these interrogations took place and who gave the political authority and clearance for it”.

On 2 December 2014 the Irish government announced that, having reviewed the new evidence and following requests from the survivors, it had decided to officially ask the ECHR to revise its 1978 judgement.

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The Battle of the Boyne -What’s it all about?

 

The Battle of the Boyne 1690

King James II

 

The Battle of the Boyne (Irish: Cath na Bóinne IPA: [ˈkah n̪ˠə ˈbˠoːn̪ʲə]) was a battle in 1690 between the English King James II, and the Dutch Prince William of Orange, who, with his wife, Mary II (his cousin and James’ daughter), had overthrown James in England in 1688.

King Billy

 

 

The battle took place across the River Boyne near the town of Drogheda on the east coast of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This turned the tide in James’s failed attempt to regain the British crown and ultimately aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland.

The battle took place on 1 July 1690 in the old style (Julian) calendar. This was equivalent to 11 July in the new style (Gregorian) calendar, although today its commemoration is held on 12 July,[1] on which the decisive Battle of Aughrim was fought a year later. William’s forces defeated James’s army, which consisted mostly of raw recruits. The symbolic importance of this battle has made it one of the best-known battles in the history of the British Isles and a key part of the folklore of the Orange Order. Its commemoration today is principally by the Protestant Orange Institution.

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Battle of  Boyne

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Battle of the Boyne
Part of the Williamite War in Ireland
BattleOfBoyne.png
Painting of the battle by Jan Wyck c. 1693
Date 1 July 1690 O.S.[A]
Location Oldbridge, County Meath, Ireland
Result Williamite victory
Belligerents
Jacobite forces
 France
Williamite forces
 Dutch Republic
Commanders and leaders
James VII and II
Earl of Tyrconnell
Duc de Lauzun
William III
Duke of Schomberg 
Strength
23,500 36,000
Casualties and losses
~1,500 casualties ~750 casualties

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Background

The battle was the decisive encounter in a war that was primarily about James’s attempt to regain the thrones of England and Scotland, resulting from the Invitation to William and William’s wife, Mary, to take the throne. It is regarded as a crucial moment in the struggle between Irish Protestant and Catholic interests.

Duke of Scomberg

 

 

The previous year William had sent the Duke of Schomberg to take charge of the Irish campaign. He was a 75-year-old professional soldier who had accompanied William during the Glorious Revolution. Under his command, affairs had remained static and very little had been accomplished, partly because the English troops, unaccustomed to the climate,[citation needed] suffered severely from fever. William, dissatisfied with the state of affairs in Ireland, decided to take charge in person.

In an Irish context, the war was a sectarian and ethnic conflict, in many ways a re-run of the Irish Confederate Wars of 50 years earlier. For the Jacobites, the war was fought for Irish sovereignty, religious tolerance for Catholicism, and land ownership. The Catholic upper classes had lost almost all their lands after Cromwell’s conquest, as well as the right to hold public office, practice their religion, and sit in the Irish Parliament. They saw the Catholic King James as a means of redressing these grievances and securing the autonomy of Ireland from England. To these ends, under Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel, they had raised an army to restore James after the Glorious Revolution. By 1690, they controlled all of Ireland except for the province of Ulster. Most of James II’s troops at the Boyne were Irish Catholics.

The majority of Irish people were Jacobites and supported James II due to his 1687 Declaration of Indulgence or, as it is also known, the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, that granted religious freedom to all denominations in England and Scotland and also due to James II’s promise to the Irish Parliament of an eventual right to self-determination.[2][3]

Conversely, for the Williamites, the war was about maintaining Protestant and English rule in Ireland. They feared for their lives and their property if James and his Catholic supporters were to rule Ireland, nor did they trust the promise of tolerance, seeing the Declaration of Indulgence as a ploy to re-establish Catholicism as the sole state religion. In particular, they dreaded a repeat of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, which had been marked by widespread killing. For these reasons, Protestants fought en masse for William of Orange. Many Williamite troops at the Boyne, including their very effective irregular cavalry, were Ulster Protestants, who called themselves “Inniskillingers” and were referred to by contemporaries as “Scots-Irish“.

Ironically, historian Derek Brown notes that if the battle is seen as part of the War of the Grand Alliance, Pope Alexander VIII was an ally of William and an enemy to James; the Papal States were part of the Grand Alliance with a shared hostility to the Catholic Louis XIV of France, who at the time was attempting to establish dominance in Europe and to whom James was an ally.[4]

Commanders

The opposing armies in the battle were led by the Roman Catholic King James II of England, Scotland, and Ireland and opposing him, his nephew and son-in-law, the Protestant King William III (“William of Orange”) who had deposed James the previous year. James’s supporters controlled much of Ireland and the Irish Parliament. James also enjoyed the support of his cousin, Louis XIV, who did not want to see a hostile monarch on the throne of England. Louis sent 6,000 French troops to Ireland to support the Irish Jacobites. William was already Stadtholder of the Netherlands and was able to call on Dutch and allied troops from Europe as well as England and Scotland.

James was a seasoned officer who had proven his bravery when fighting for his brother – King Charles II – in Europe, notably at the Battle of the Dunes (1658). However, recent historians have noted that he was prone to panicking under pressure and making rash decisions, possibly due to the onset of the dementia which would overtake him completely in later years. William, although a seasoned commander, was hardly one of history’s great generals and had yet to win a major battle.

Many of his battles ended in stalemates, prompting at least one modern historian to argue that William lacked an ability to manage armies in the thick of conflict. William’s success against the French had been reliant upon tactical manoeuvres and good diplomacy rather than force. His diplomacy had assembled the League of Augsburg, a multi-national coalition formed to resist French aggression in Europe. From William’s point of view, his takeover of power in England and the ensuing campaign in Ireland was just another front in the war against King Louis XIV.

James II’s subordinate commanders were Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, who was Lord Deputy of Ireland and James’s most powerful supporter in Ireland; and the French general Lauzun. William’s second-in-command was the Duke of Schomberg. Born in Heidelberg, Germany, Schomberg had formerly been a Marshal of France, but, being a Huguenot, was compelled to leave France in 1685 because of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

Armies

Williamite Army

 

 

The Williamite army at the Boyne was about 36,000 strong, composed of troops from many countries. Around 20,000 troops had been in Ireland since 1689, commanded by Schomberg. William himself arrived with another 16,000 in June 1690. William’s troops were generally far better trained and equipped than James’s. The best Williamite infantry were from Denmark and the Netherlands, professional soldiers equipped with the latest flintlock muskets. There was also a large contingent of French Huguenot troops fighting with the Williamites. William did not have a high opinion of his English and Scottish troops, with the exception of the Ulster Protestant irregulars who had held Ulster in the previous year. The English and Scottish troops were felt to be politically unreliable, since James had been their legitimate monarch up to a year before. Moreover, they had only been raised recently and had seen little battle action.

Jacobite Army

 

 

The Jacobites were 23,500 strong. James had several regiments of French troops, but most of his manpower was provided by Irish Catholics. The Jacobites’ Irish cavalry, who were recruited from among the dispossessed Irish gentry, proved themselves to be high calibre troops during the course of the battle. However, the Irish infantry, predominantly peasants who had been pressed into service, were not trained soldiers. They had been hastily trained, poorly equipped, and only a minority of them had functional muskets. In fact, some of them carried only farm implements such as scythes at the Boyne. On top of that, the Jacobite infantry who actually had firearms were all equipped with the obsolete matchlock musket.

The battle

Battle of the Boyne between James II and William III, 11 July 1690, Jan van Huchtenburg.

William had landed in Carrickfergus in Ulster on 14 June 1690 and marched south to take Dublin. He was heard to remark that ‘the place was worth fighting for’. James chose to place his line of defense on the River Boyne, around 30 miles (48 km) from Dublin. The Williamites reached the Boyne on 29 June. The day before the battle, William himself had a narrow escape when he was wounded in the shoulder by Jacobite artillery while surveying the fords over which his troops would cross the Boyne.

The battle itself was fought on 1 July OS (11th NS), for control of a ford on the Boyne near Drogheda, about 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) northwest of the hamlet of Oldbridge (and about 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) west-northwest of the modern Boyne River Bridge). William sent about a quarter of his men to cross the river at Roughgrange, about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) west of Donore and about 6 miles (9.7 km) southwest of Oldbridge. The Duke of Schomberg’s son, Meinhardt, led this crossing, which Irish dragoons in picquet under Neil O’Neill unsuccessfully opposed. James, an inexperienced general, thought that he might be outflanked and sent half his troops, along with most of his artillery, to counter this move. What neither side had realised was that there was a deep, swampy ravine at Roughgrange. Because of this ravine, the opposing forces there could not engage each other, but literally sat out the battle. The Williamite forces went on a long detour march which, later in the day, almost saw them cut off the Jacobite retreat at the village of Naul.

At the main ford near Oldbridge, William’s infantry, led by the elite Dutch Blue Guards, forced their way across the river, using their superior firepower to slowly drive back the enemy foot soldiers, but were pinned down when the Jacobite cavalry counter-attacked. Having secured the village of Oldbridge, some Williamite infantry tried to hold off successive cavalry attacks with disciplined volley fire, but were scattered and driven into the river, with the exception of the Blue Guards. William’s second-in-command, the Duke of Schomberg, and George Walker were killed in this phase of the battle. The Williamites were not able to resume their advance until their own horsemen managed to cross the river and, after being badly mauled, managed to hold off the Jacobite cavalry until they retired and regrouped at Donore, where they once again put up stiff resistance before retiring.

The Jacobites retired in good order. William had a chance to trap them as they retreated across the River Nanny at Duleek, but his troops were held up by a successful rear-guard action. The Dutch secretary of King William, Constantijn Huygens Jr., has given a good description (in Dutch) of the battle and its aftermath, including subsequent cruelties committed by the victorious soldiers.[5]

The casualty figures of the battle were quite low for a battle of such a scale—of the 50,000 or so participants, about 2,000 died. Three-quarters of the dead were Jacobites. William’s army had far more wounded. At the time, most casualties of battles tended to be inflicted in the pursuit of an already-beaten enemy; this did not happen at the Boyne, as the counter-attacks of the skilled Jacobite cavalry screened the retreat of the rest of their army, and in addition William was always disinclined to endanger the person of James, since he was the father of his wife, Mary. The Jacobites were badly demoralised by the order to retreat, which lost them the battle. Many of the Irish infantrymen deserted. The Williamites triumphantly marched into Dublin two days after the battle. The Jacobite army abandoned the city and marched to Limerick, behind the River Shannon, where they were unsuccessfully besieged.

Soon after the battle William issued the Declaration of Finglas, offering full pardons to ordinary Jacobite soldiers but not to their leaders. After his defeat, James did not stay in Dublin, but rode with a small escort to Duncannon and returned to exile in France, even though his army left the field relatively unscathed. James’s loss of nerve and speedy exit from the battlefield enraged his Irish supporters, who fought on until the Treaty of Limerick in 1691; he was derisively nicknamed Seamus a’ chaca (“James the shit”) in Irish.

There is an oral tradition stating that no battle took place at all, that a symbolic victory was shown by the crossing of the River Boyne and that the total fatalities were a result of Williamite cavalry attacking the local able-bodied men.

It is well documented that Williams’ horse on that day was black, despite all Orange Order murals depicting it as white with William holding his sword between the horse’s ears to make it resemble a unicorn as a symbol of his “Saviour” status. Depictions of William have been strongly influenced by Benjamin West‘s 1778 painting The Battle of the Boyne.

Aftermath

The battle was overshadowed by the defeat of an Anglo-Dutch fleet by the French two days later at the Battle of Beachy Head, a far more serious event in the short term; only on the continent was the Boyne treated as an important victory. Its importance lay in the fact that it was the first proper victory for the League of Augsburg, the first-ever alliance between the Vatican and Protestant countries. The victory motivated more nations to join the alliance and in effect ended the fear of a French conquest of Europe.

The Boyne also had strategic significance for both England and Ireland. It marked the end of James’s hope of regaining his throne by military means and probably assured the triumph of the Glorious Revolution. In Scotland, news of this defeat temporarily silenced the Highlanders supporting the Jacobite Rising, which Bonnie Dundee had led. In Ireland, the Boyne fully assured the Jacobites that they could successfully resist William. But it was a general victory for William, and is still celebrated by the Protestant Orange Order on the Twelfth of July. Ironically, due to the political situation mentioned above, the Pope also hailed the victory of William at the Boyne, ordered the bells of the Vatican to be rung in celebration.

Some Irish Catholics who were taken prisoner after the battle were tortured until they agreed to convert to Protestantism.[6]

The Treaty of Limerick was very generous to Catholics. It allowed most land owners to keep their land so long as they swore allegiance to William of Orange. It also said that James could take a certain number of his soldiers and go back to France. However, Protestants in England were annoyed with this kind treatment towards the Catholics, especially when they were gaining strength and money. Because of this, penal laws were introduced. These laws included banning Catholics from owning weapons, reducing their land, and prohibiting them from working in the legal profession.

Commemoration

 

River Boyne, west of Drogheda, today

View of the commemorative obelisk, prior to 1883. It was destroyed in 1923.

Medal Struck to Commemorate the Battle of the Boyne (Robert Chambers, p.8, July 1832)[7]

Originally, Irish Protestants commemorated the Battle of Aughrim on 12 July (old style, equivalent to 22 July new style), symbolising their victory in the Williamite war in Ireland. At Aughrim, which took place a year after the Boyne, the Jacobite army was destroyed, deciding the war in the Williamites’ favour. The Boyne, which, in the old Julian calendar, took place on 1 July, was treated as less important, third after Aughrim and the anniversary of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 on 23 October.

In 1752, the Gregorian calendar was adopted in Ireland, which erroneously placed the Boyne on 12 July instead of Aughrim (the correct equivalent date was 11 July, as the difference between the calendars for the year in question, 1690, was not 11 days but only 10 days). However, even after this date, “The Twelfth” still commemorated Aughrim.[clarification needed] But after the Orange Order was founded in 1795 amid sectarian violence in Armagh[further explanation needed], the focus of parades on 12 July switched to the Battle of the Boyne.[further explanation needed] Usually the dates before the introduction of the calendar on 14 September 1752 are mapped in English language histories directly onto the Julian dates without shifting them by 10 or 11 days.[8]

Being suspicious of anything with Papist connotations, however, rather than shift the anniversary of the Boyne to the new 1 July[clarification needed] or celebrate the new anniversary of Aughrim, the Orangemen continued to march on 12 July which was (erroneously) thought to have marked the battle of the Boyne in New Style dates.[clarification needed] Despite this, there are also smaller parades and demonstrations on 1 July, the date which maps the old style date of the Boyne to the new style in the usual manner and which also commemorate the heavy losses of the 36th (Ulster) Division on the first day of the Battle of the Somme in July 1916.[citation needed]

The memory of the battle also has resonance among Irish nationalists. In 1923, IRA members blew up a large monument to the battle on the battlefield site on the Boyne and destroyed a statue of William III in 1929 that stood outside Trinity College, Dublin in the centre of the Irish capital.[citation needed]

“The Twelfth” in Great Britain and Ireland today

Main article: The Twelfth
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Twelfth in Northern Ireland 2013 (BBC Documentary)
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The Battle of the Boyne remains a controversial topic today in Northern Ireland, where some Protestants remember it as the great victory over Catholics that resulted in the sovereignty of Parliament and the Protestant monarchy.

In recent decades, “The Twelfth” has often been marked by confrontations, as members of the Orange Order attempt to celebrate the date by marching past or through what they see as their traditional route. Some of these areas, however, now have a nationalist majority who object to marches passing through what they see as their areas.

Each side thus dresses up the disputes in terms of the other’s alleged attempts to repress them; Nationalists still see Orange Order marches as provocative attempts to “show who is boss”, whilst Unionists insist that they have a right to “walk the Queen’s highway”. Since the start of The Troubles, the celebrations of the battle have been seen as playing a critical role in the awareness of those involved in the unionist/nationalist tensions in Northern Ireland.

The battlefield today

The site of the Battle of the Boyne sprawls over a wide area west of the town of Drogheda. In the County Development Plan for 2000, Meath County Council rezoned the land at the eastern edge of Oldbridge, at the site of the main Williamite crossing, to residential status. A subsequent planning application for a development of over 700 houses was granted by Meath County Council and this was appealed by local historians to An Bord Pleanala (The Planning Board). In March 2008 after an extremely long appeal process, An Bord Pleanala approved permission for this development to proceed. However, due to the current economic climate in Ireland, no work has yet started on this development.

The current Interpretive Centre dedicated to informing tourists and other visitors about the battle is about 1-mile (1.6 km) to the west of the main crossing point. This facility was redeveloped in 2008 and is now open for tourists. The battle’s other main combat areas (at Duleek, Donore and Plattin – along the Jacobite line of retreat) are marked with tourist information signs.

On 4 April 2007 in a sign of improving relations between unionist and nationalist groups, the newly elected First Minister of Northern Ireland, the Reverend Ian Paisley, was invited to visit the battle site by the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Bertie Ahern later in the year. Following the invitation, Paisley commented that “such a visit would help to demonstrate how far we have come when we can celebrate and learn from the past so the next generation more clearly understands”. On 10 May the visit took place, and Paisley presented the Taoiseach with a Jacobite musket in return for Ahern’s gift at the St Andrews talks of a walnut bowl made from a tree from the site. A new tree was also planted in the grounds of Oldbridge House by the two politicians to mark the occasion.[9]

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 -The Glorious 12th of July –

Extracts from Belfast Child Autobiography

My Story

 

Chapter Four

The Glorious 12th

protestant boys

Extracts from Belfast Child.

See above for additional chapters

See The Siege Of Derry what’s it all about

Like the vast majority of Protestants in Northern Ireland apart from my Birthday, Christmas and our family holiday to Ballyferris, the 12th of July was the biggest and most important day of the year. In 1663 the Protestant King Billy defeated the Catholic King James at the Battle of Boyne and changed the course of Irish history forever. Three hundred years later on the 12th of July every year Northern Ireland came to a standstill as the Protestant majority took to the streets and celebrated the most sacred day in the Protestant calendar. As a child I loved the whole 12th experience and counted the days down until the great day arrived. For weeks before the 12th all the children, with the help of adults would gather all sorts of burnable material for the bonfire that would be lit the night before, to signal the beginning of the celebrations. After school we would rush home, have something to eat and head of in the hunt for wood and whatever else we could find that would burn. Sometimes there would be dozens of us going back and forth to the gel carrying whatever we could find and placing it on the ever growing bonfire in the middle of the square. In Glencairn alone there would be about five or six bonfires and it was always very competitive to see which area could collect the most wood and have the biggest bonfire. Competition between the various parts of the estate were fierce and as the eleventh grew closer, the older boys would be allowed to stay out all night with suitable adults and guard the wood from raids from those at the top or bottom of the estate. As the day grew closer, the excitement was almost tangible and in the early evening sunshine we would gather around the ever-growing tower of wood and play until darkness. There was always a hunt, the command centre and if we were lucky the older boys would let us go inside and wait until they returned from another hunt for wood. One day when there was only myself and a few of the other younger children guarding the wood , the boys from the top of the estate came charging through the square in a bare faced raid on our precious wood. There were only about five of us and there was about fifteen of them and they were all older than us and there was little we could do but stand by and watch as they made off with their precious bounty. Taking control I told David to run as fast as he could and find the rest of our gang. Picking up stones from the ground I began pelting the enemy with missiles. The others soon joined in and before long the enemy had to duck and hide as we threw everything we could find at them. But we were well out numbered and it was only a matter of time before they had over powered us and decided to take me prisoner, as I seemed to be in charge.

Shankill Road Bonefire

Panic and terror washed over me as I was lead away to the enemy camp at the top of the estate. To add insult to injury a boy named Y forced me to help him carry a door stolen from our bonfire. I was threatened with a dig in the face if I tried to run away or do anything stupid, so I decided self preservation was the best course of action and was a model prisoner. As we marched in single file towards the top of the estate and the enemy bonfire, I wondered with dread what fate awaited me when we arrived there. A few weeks before John Jackson had also been captured in a raid and when he was finally set free he had a black eye and a busted lip. As I marched on all sorts of thoughts of pain and torture were going through my mind, when suddenly I heard the sound of running feet and raised voices. As I turned I was delighted to see my brother and about ten of our gang running towards us. Panic set into the enemy as they realized what was happening and some of them dropped what they were carrying and fled. Before I knew what was happening my rescuers had caught up with us and a massive fight broke out between the two warring sides. I dropped my end of the door I was carrying and jumped on Y terrorising him with a blood curdling scream that rose from deep within me. I was free! The noise was deafening as the two sides fought a running battle, but reinforcements had arrived from our gang and before long we had beaten the enemy into retreat. When they had all fled, we gathered up our stolen wood and sang as we made our way back to our camp.

I was a hero and that night guarding the bonfire I wallowed as all those present praised my heroic deeds of the day and I now had access to the hut whenever I liked.

dad  and margaret

Why Ireland split into the Republic of Ireland & Northern Ireland

As the great day drew closer our house was always in a state of complete chaos. Dad was busy making sure everything was ready for the bands biggest and most important march of the year. There were over forty people in the band and they all had to have uniforms that fitted perfectly and instruments that were at the peak of their working year. While dad got on with that, Granny took us down town and rigged us out with new clothes and shoes for the big day. Image was everything and regardless of how scruffy and dirty we looked the rest of the year, on the 12th of July we would be immaculately turned out. Granny had an old friend called Isaac who lived in Ballysillan and although he was half blind, deaf and always drunk, he had in his day been a competent barber and Granny saw no reason not to continue sending me and David over to Isaac whenever a hair cut was in order, even though he had been retired for over thirty years. Besides he only charged £1.50 and as money was always tight it made perfect sense. Unfortunately for us he would give us a cut that would have shamed a corpse and eventually I came up with the idea that we should cut each other’s hair and pocket the money for ourselves.

111 coffin

These plans went well for a few months until one-day granny give us the money to go and get our hairs cut. When we got back, Granny was stood by the door waiting for us, which was most unusual and asked us had Isaac cut our hair? When we answered yes, she asked us how he was. By now we were both starting to get a bit suspicious and nervously answered ok. How were we to know that he had died the night before from a sudden heart attached and was now in the morgue having the final hair cut of his life. Needless to say Granny went ape and we got a good thumping for the lies. From that day on Granny personally escorted us to the barbers and watched with a critical eye as we had our hairs cut.

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The Sash my Father Wore

SHANKILL PROTESTANT BOYS FLUTE BAND, SINGING THE SASH

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Growing up in loyalist Belfast every child knew the words to the Sash and it was our national anthem.

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Lyrics

So sure l’m an Ulster Orangeman, from Erin’s isle I came,
To see my British brethren all of honour and of fame,
And to tell them of my forefathers who fought in days of yore,
That I might have the right to wear, the sash my father wore!

Chorus:
It is old but it is beautiful, and its colours they are fine
It was worn at Derry, Aughrim, Enniskillen and the Boyne.
My father wore it as a youth in bygone days of yore,
And on the Twelfth I love to wear the sash my father wore.

Chorus

For those brave men who crossed the Boyne have not fought or died in vain
Our Unity, Religion, Laws, and Freedom to maintain,
If the call should come we’ll follow the drum, and cross that river once more
That tomorrow’s Ulsterman may wear the sash my father wore!

Chorus

And when some day, across the sea to Antrim’s shore you come,
We’ll welcome you in royal style, to the sound of flute and drum
And Ulster’s hills shall echo still, from Rathlin to Dromore
As we sing again the loyal strain of the sash my father wore!

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As the 12th grew closer and closer there was always an atmosphere of excitement and anticipation whilst everyone counted the days down. The various bonfires were now mountains of burnable material that towered high above the houses and flats that surrounded the area. Apart from the hundreds of bands and orange lodge’s from Northern Ireland that would be marching on the day, dozen’s more would travel over from Scotland, Mainland England and as far afield as Canada & Australia. This was the most sacred day in the Loyalist calendar. Loyalist’s from across the world would make the pilgrimage back to Northern Ireland to celebrate their culture and age old traditions. Even at nine years old I felt a tremendous sense of pride and loyalty and passion at the Protestant culture and traditions that governed my daily life in Loyalist West Belfast. I was no different from any other child from a working class Protestant family in Northern Ireland. Although unlike my peers I had a secret Catholic mother.

Like all other Loyalist areas of Belfast and throughout Northern Ireland Glencairn was awash with Loyalist flags, red, white and blue bunting, murals and countless houses had Union Jacks and Red Hand of Ulster flag’s flying proudly from the front. As the twelfth of July approached this visual proclamation of Protestant pride took on a new meaning and the paving stones would be painted red, white and blue whilst almost every house in the estate flew a Loyalist or Protestant flag of some description. As a child this added to the sense of excitement for me and I took this as a sign of the glorious party that everyone would take part in to celebrate the twelfth.

When the 11th of July finally arrived Granny would come round to our house first thing and sort dad and us all out and make sure we had enough food to see us over the holiday period. We would be almost bursting with excitement and as soon as breakfast was over, David, Shep and I were out the door and heading towards the bonfire, where we would meet up with our mates and spend the day collecting last minute material for the fire and generally playing around. As evening approached adults would gradually start to gather around the bonfire and the celebrations would get in to full swing. Loud Loyalist music would be blaring from various houses around the square and as the night wore on more and more people would gather and the whole square came alive with the sound of laughter and people enjoying themselves. Everybody took part in the celebrations and the whole community mucked in to make sure the occasion was really special and a night to remember. Local women would prepare loads and loads of food for the party and this would be distributed throughout the day to anyone who needed a bite to eat. As the evening wore on the music got louder, the adults would become very loud and funny as the drink kicked in and as darkness engulfed Belfast the time to light the children’s bonfire would arrive. Finally when everyone was in place, to cries of delight from the gathered crowds, an Effie of the pope was placed on the top of the bonfire. On this night more than any other, the two communities of Northern Ireland were divided more than ever, as the Protestant majority noisily celebrated its supremacy over the Catholic minority. Surrounded by all my family and friends I watched in awe as the bonfire was lit and the flames, slowly at first, then faster licked their way up towards the top and the pope. As the flames grew higher and higher and finally reached the pope and engulfed him in flames, screams of joy rang out through the summer’s nights and echoed around the estate and Protestant Northern Ireland. Shouts of encouragement egged the flames on until finally the pope disintegrated in front of our eyes and we all took great joy from the fact the he was obviously suffering a terrible death.

Pope John

As grew older & wiser my hatred of the Pope and all things Catholic diminished ,but my hatred of Republicans & The IRA is as strong today as it was when I was a Child. I blamed them for the misery & slaughter they unleased in their quest for a United Ireland and the 1000’s of innocent victims now in too early graves.

We had killed and burned to cinders the father of the hated Catholic Church and her people and we sang and yelled with pleasure as the ritual the stirred in us. As the fire burned the crackle of the wood and the spit of the flames filled the air and children would dance round the fire, laughing and singing with the adults until it was time for bed. Eventually Granny would come and find David, Shep and me and bring us home in protest to bed. As soon as we were settled down she would go out into the square again and David and I would climb out of bed and watch from our bedroom window, the antics of the drunken adults as they sang and danced the night away around the burning bonfire.

First thing next morning Granny would be round at the crack of dawn and yell for us to get up as she busied herself making everyone a full Ulster Fry and getting us ready. Before long the house was in complete chaos as Granny washed and fed us and made sure we were smartly turned out for the day. As the morning wore on members of the band would arrive for last minute preparation and before long the whole street was out and about, as the band nervously got in a few last minutes of practice. At about eight thirty the whole band would start to gather outside the shops and take up their places. By now the route out of the estate was lined with hundreds of people, regardless of age or hangovers, who had come to see them off. When everyone was in place dad took up his position at the right of the procession and after one last check shouted, “March” and they would strike up a tune and begin to march. Every year a loyal crowd of followers would fall in beside them and accompany them on the 26 mile march to the field. Much to my annoyance I was too young to be allowed to go with them and I longed for the day when I would be old enough. As we stood on the kerb watching them go my heart was full of pride as I watched dad in his uniform lead them down the Road and out of the estate. When they were out of sight we would all travel down to Ormeau Road, where hundreds of bands and Orange men would meet before making their way to the field. Tens of thousands lined the route and as a child it seemed to me the whole world had gathered to celebrate with 12th of July. Our family always sat outside the garage on the lower Ormeau road and watched as hundred of bands, of all shapes and colours, lead thousands of bowler hatted Orangemen and women to the field.

Orange Men

Throughout Northern Ireland dozens of similar parades were taking place, but the march in Belfast was always by far the biggest and the most important of the day. We watched with mounting excitement as various bands passed and waited with baited breath for dad’s band to come into view, so we could cheer them on.

Each band would be attached to an Orange lodge that marched in front of them all the way to the field. They all had a unique uniform that extinguished them from the other bands marching. The hardcore Loyalist and paramilitary flute bands always got the loudest cheers and when a talented leader came into view everyone watched with nervous anticipation as he done various tricks with his pole, flinging it high into the sky, before catching it on the way down and immediately throwing it over his neck or under his legs before going into an routine.. Although dad’s band was an accordion band and we all took great pride in them being part of the parade, the flute and hardcore Loyalist bands were the crowds favourite and when they played a familiar tune huge cheers arose from the gathered crowd and people would join in and sing a long at the top of their voices until the band passed and another came into view. I always loved the sound of the Lambeg drums as they made their way to where we were standing and their mournful tunes drifted far over our heads and echoed through the streets of Belfast, as a warning to the Catholic people that today was our day and we were the masters of Northern Ireland. A sea of colour washed past as band after band marched by us on their way to the field. Apart from local and famous flute bands getting the loudest cheers , bands from the Shankill Road brought the loudest cheers of encouragement and joy , these were our people, come to our shore to support us in our never ending war against the IRA and Catholic people and we made sure they knew we appreciated their commitment. When dad’s band finally came into sight a huge cheer rang out from all of us and those among the spectators from Glencairn and the surrounding areas. As they passed us we would call dad’s name and when he and the other’s from the band noticed us they would all turn and salute us as they marched past. I almost burst with pride as I watched them move off and disappear in to the distance and always regretted that I was not going with them. The parade took about two hours to pass us and when it was all over, Granny would take us home. Exhausted from shouting and singing after dinner we would while away the time until 17:30, when we would go back to town to cheer them on their homeward journey from the field. When it was all over there would always be lots of parties in the estate as we clung desperately to the day and never wanted it to end. By the time we eventually got to bed I would be counting down the days until next year and the time I was old enough to take part in the parade and go all the way to the mystical field with dad and the rest of the band. Sleep came easily and I dreamt I was the leader of one of the more famous bands and the best leader in the whole wide world.

Every year on the 13th July the entire Chambers clan, aunties, uncles, grandparents, cousin’s, close friends and an assortment of animals would descend on Ballyferris Caravan Park to start the annual holidays. Ballyferris is a small seaside town on the east coast of County Down and like all other aspects of our life it was a Protestant town and a favourite destination for Protestants throughout Belfast and the Shankill road area. It was like a home from home and we all loved and looked forward to our yearly visits there. In the early years we never had a car and would travel down on the bus or train, depending on how much money we had. We must have looked like a Sunday school outing as 9 adults shepherded over a dozen kids through the centre of Belfast towards the train or bus station. When we finally arrived in Ballyferris we would all help unpack the luggage and settle into various caravans that stood side by side looking out towards the sea. There were that many of us that it must have looked as though we had taken over the whole caravan site and the other children always sought us out as they wanted to become part of our massive gang. There was a huge green in the centre of the site and at every opportunity two teams were rustled together and a football match would get under way. I used to love it if I got picked to play on the same side as dad and other members of the family and the rest of the family cheered on from the touchline. I dreamt that I was George Best, playing for Manchester United. When we weren’t playing football or flying our kites David, wee Sam , Pickle and me would go down to the beach in search of crabs and other sea life and if they were lucky to survive being captured , we would bring them up to the green and race them for packets of sweets and crisps etc. Once wee Sam and I got separated from the other as we climbed further and further over the rocks until we were right by the sea’s edge. We lost all sense of time as we cast our crab lines out as far as possible in our quest to catch the biggest crab. Gradually it started to rain and as it began to fall heavier and heavier we decided to pack up and head back to the caravan with our bucket of nervous crabs. As we turned to leave we noticed with mounting panic that the tide had come in and we were completely surrounded by the rising sea water. Our frantic cries finally caught the attention of a man walking his dog on the beach and before long the whole family and most of the other people staying at the caravan site were gathered at the edge of the water telling us not to move and the coastguards were on their way. Panic turned to excitement as a dot appeared in the distance sea and the coast boat came slowly into view. Wee Sam and I were pleased as punch as the boat drew up and the coastguard helped us into the boat. As the boat made its way to the beach we waved like royalty to the gathered crowds on the beachfront. Sadly our joy was short lived as when we arrived on the beach we got a severe ticking off from our parents and any other adult who felt like having a go. Not that we let this spoil our new found fame and at every opportunity for the rest of the holiday we boasted to our peers about our daring rescue by the coast guard from the jaws of certain death.

In the evening if the weather was good we would all gather as much food and drink as we could carry and go down to the beach to have a BBQ or picnic. We would collect wood from the beach and before long we would have a fire going and cook baked potatoes and roast sausages round the edge. As darkness rolled in we would sit around the fire singing Loyalist song and telling stories and before long I would fall asleep on dad’s knee and the next thing I knew I was waking up the next morning, in the caravan to the sounds and smells of Granny making breakfast. The best part of the whole holiday for me and the other children was when we would all be gathered up and went to Millisle , a seaside town about two miles away with a huge funfair. Sometime’s when the weather was really good we would walk to Millisle along the beach front and as it came into view we would race over the sand dunes in a scramble to see who could get there first. The day would be spent going from one ride to another and although I loved it all, I enjoyed the dodgem cars best of all and I drove like a kamikaze pilot as I crashed into dad and anyone else I could catch. Dad always seemed to enjoy our time at the funfair and he took part in loads of different games until he had won us all a present of some description. After exhausting ourselves on the rides we would join our grandparents and others on the beach for a picnic and if we were really lucky we were treated to fish and chips from one of the many chippies along the seas front. After dinner dad and his brothers would go for a pint in one of the local bars and we kids would amuse ourselves by burying each other in the sand and paddling by the water’s edge. It was always with great sadness for me when these days came to an end and I would feel heartbroken as we packed up our things for the bus back to the caravan site. I never wanted these holidays to end and when the day came that we would be travelling back to Belfast I would take long walks along the beach and through the caravan site and considered hiding until everyone else had left and I could stay there forever. Dad and the others were used to my wander lust and a search party was soon despatched to find me and bring me back into the fold. As the bus pulled away from the caravan site, taking us home, I fought to hold back my tears as I said a silent goodbye to Ballyferris and the bright lights of the fun fair.

Years later as a teenager, with my life in tatters and on the brink of suicide, I ran away from home and ended up back in Ballyferris. But this time I was all alone and it was mid winter, snowing, freezing cold and the funfair was in complete darkness. And my beloved father was dead.

 

If you would like to read more of my story please see home page of follow this link Belfast Child’s Autobiography .

The Sash my Father Wore

The Sash my Father Wore

This one is for all those proud Ulster men and women missing home today and the glorious 12th  of July celebrations.

Lyrics

So sure l’m an Ulster Orangeman, from Erin’s isle I came,
To see my British brethren all of honour and of fame,
And to tell them of my forefathers who fought in days of yore,
That I might have the right to wear, the sash my father wore!

Chorus:
It is old but it is beautiful, and its colours they are fine
It was worn at Derry, Aughrim, Enniskillen and the Boyne.
My father wore it as a youth in bygone days of yore,
And on the Twelfth I love to wear the sash my father wore.

Chorus

For those brave men who crossed the Boyne have not fought or died in vain
Our Unity, Religion, Laws, and Freedom to maintain,
If the call should come we’ll follow the drum, and cross that river once more
That tomorrow’s Ulsterman may wear the sash my father wore!

Chorus

And when some day, across the sea to Antrim’s shore you come,
We’ll welcome you in royal style, to the sound of flute and drum
And Ulster’s hills shall echo still, from Rathlin to Dromore
As we sing again the loyal strain of the sash my father wore!

SHANKILL PROTESTANT BOYS FLUTE BAND, SINGING THE SASH

——————————————————————————————————————–

Growing up in loyalist Belfast every child knew the words to the Sash and it was our national anthem.

As a child growing up in Belfast I would count the days down until the great day arrived and surrounded with friends and family we would peacefully celebrate our history and culture.

Just because we celebrated the 12th of July doesn’t mean we hated Catholic’s or people from the Republic. It means we are proud of our history and exercise the right to embrace our culture and   the right to celebrate and mark the greatest day of the Protestant Calendar in Northern Ireland.

God Save the Queen

The Sash (also known as The Sash My Father Wore) is a ballad from the Irish province of Ulster commemorating the victory of King William III in the Williamite war in Ireland in 1690–1691.

The lyrics mention the 1689 Siege of Derry, the 1689 Battle of Newtownbutler near Enniskillen, the 1690 Battle of the Boyne and the 1691 Battle of Aughrim. It is popular amongst Ulster loyalists and many unionists in Northern Ireland, as well as in parts of Scotland where it can often be heard sung at football games by supporters of Rangers F.C. and in England, albeit as a variant called The Scarf, at Stockport County (in particular by the more vocal support at away matches).

The lyrics are thought to be around 100 years old, and the melody has been traced back to the early 19th century. The tune of “The Sash” was well known around Europe, and before the lyrics were added, it was a love song that lamented division between people. Instead of “it was old and it was beautiful”, the lyrics were “she was young and she was beautiful” and is in Broadside Ballads (1787)[1] titled Irish Molly O. Another known printing of the tune is from 1876 including the words “The Hat My Father Wore”.[2] The song is classified in the Roud Folk Song Index as number 4796. It has also been adapted by fans of Stockport County F.C., who call it “The Scarf My Father Wore” or simply “The Anthem”.

The tune is used by Liverpool F.C. fans in their song Poor Scouser Tommy.

On this day.12th July

On this day in 1963

The Moors Murderers begin their killing spree

Sixteen-year-old Pauline Reade isabducted while onher way to a dance nearher home in Gorton, England, by Ian Brady and Myra Hindley, the so-called “Moors Murderers,” launching a crime spree that will last for over two years. Reade’s body was not discovered until 1987, after Brady confessed to the murder during an interview with reporters while in a mental hospital. The teenager had been sexually assaulted and her throat had been slashed.

Brady and Hindley met in Manchester in 1961. The shy girl quickly became infatuated with Brady, a self-styled Nazi, who had a substantial library of Nazi literature and an obsession with sadistic sex. After photographing Hindley in obscene positions, Brady sold his amateur pornography to the public.

In order to satisfy their sadistic impulses, Brady and Hindley began abducting and killing young men and women. After Pauline Reade, they kidnapped 12-year-old John Kilbride in November and Keith Bennett, also 12, in June the next year. The day after Christmas in 1964, Leslie Ann Downey, a 10-year-old from Manchester, was abducted.

In 1965, the couplekilled a 17-year-old boy with a hatchet in front of Hindley’s brother-in-law, David Smith, perhaps in an attempt to recruit him for future murders. This apparently crossed the line for Smith, who then went to the police.

Inside Brady’s apartment, police found luggage tickets that led them to two suitcases in Manchester Central Station. They contained photos of Leslie Ann Downey being tortured along with audiotapes of her pleading for her life. Other photos depicted Hindley and Brady in a desolate area of England known as Saddleworth Moor. There, police found the body of John Kilbride.

The Moors Murderers were convicted and sentenced to life in prison in 1966. Their notoriety continued after it was revealed that a guard at Holloway women’s prison had fallen for Hindley and had an affair with her. For his part, Brady continued to confess to other murders, but police have been unable to confirm the validity of his confessions.

Also on this day in:

526 St Felix IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1109 Crusaders capture Syria’s harbor city of Tripoli
1191 English King Richard I / the Lionheart & Crusaders defeat Saracens in Palestine
1290 Jews are expelled from England by order of King Edward I
1442 King Alfonso V of Aragon becomes king of Naples
1537 Battle of Albancay: Diego de Almagro defeated by army led by Alonso de Alvarado on behalf of Francisco Pizarro
1542 French troops under Maarten van Rossem occupies Flanders
1549 Kett’s uprising occupies Norwich, England
1580 Ostrog Bible, the first printed Bible in a Slavic language, is published.
1627 English fleet under George Villiers lands on the Rhe [NS=June 22]
1630 New Amsterdam’s governor buys Gull Island from Indians for cargo, renames it Oyster Island, it is later known as Ellis Island
1679 Britain’s King Charles II ratifies Habeas Corpus Act allowing prisoners right to be imprisoned to be examined
1690 Battle of Boyne in Ireland, Protestant King William III defeats English Catholic King James II
King Charles II

The Battle of the Boyne (Irish: Cath na Bóinne IPA: [ˈkah n̪ˠə ˈbˠoːn̪ʲə]) was a battle in 1690 between the English James II and the Dutch William of Orange, who, with his wife, Mary II (his cousin and James’ daughter), had overthrown James in England in 1688. The battle took place across the River Boyne near the town of Drogheda on the east coast of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This turned the tide in James’s failed attempt to regain the British crown and ultimately aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland.

The battle took place on 1 July 1690 in the old style (Julian) calendar. This was equivalent to 11 July in the new style (Gregorian) calendar, although today its commemoration is held on 12 July,[1] on which the decisive Battle of Aughrim was fought a year later. William’s forces defeated James’s army, which consisted mostly of raw recruits. The symbolic importance of this battle has made it one of the best-known battles in the history of the British Isles and a key part of the folklore of the Orange Order. Its commemoration today is principally by the Protestant Orange Institution.

The Background[edit]

The battle was the decisive encounter in a war that was primarily about James’s attempt to regain the thrones of England and Scotland, resulting from the Immortal Seven’s invitation to James’s daughter and William’s wife, Mary, to take the throne. It is regarded as a crucial moment in the struggle between Irish Protestant and Catholic interests.

The previous year William had sent the Duke of Schomberg to take charge of the Irish campaign. He was a 75-year-old professional soldier who had accompanied the King during the glorious revolution. Under his command affairs had remained static and very little had been accomplished, partly because the English troops, unaccustomed to the climate, suffered severely from fever. William, dissatisfied with the general apathy of affairs in Ireland, had decided to take charge in person.

In an Irish context, however, the war was a sectarian and ethnic conflict, in many ways a re-run of the Irish Confederate Wars of 50 years earlier. For the Jacobites, the war was fought for Irish sovereignty, religious toleration for Catholicism, and land ownership. The Catholic upper classes had lost almost all their lands after Cromwell’s conquest, as well as the right to hold public office, practice their religion, and sit in the Irish Parliament. They saw the Catholic King James as a means of redressing these grievances and securing the autonomy of Ireland from England. To these ends, under Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel, they had raised an army to restore James after the Glorious Revolution. By 1690, they controlled all of Ireland except for the province of Ulster. Most of James II’s troops at the Boyne were Irish Catholics.

The majority of Irish people were “Jacobites” and supported James II due to his 1687 Declaration of Indulgence or, as it is also known, The Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, that granted religious freedom to all denominations in England and Scotland and also due to James II’s promise to the Irish Parliament of an eventual right to self-determination.[2][3]

Conversely, for the Williamites, the war was about maintaining Protestant and English rule in Ireland. They feared for their lives and their property if James and his Catholic supporters were to rule Ireland, nor did they trust the promise of toleration, seeing the Declaration of Indulgence as a ploy to re-establish Catholicism as the sole State religion. In particular, they dreaded a repeat of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, which had been marked by widespread killings. For these reasons, Protestants fought en masse for William of Orange. Many Williamite troops at the Boyne, including their very effective irregular cavalry, were Protestants from Ulster, who called themselves “Inniskillingers” and were referred to by contemporaries as “Scots-Irish“.

Ironically, historian Derek Brown notes that if the battle is seen as part of the War of the Grand Alliance, Pope Alexander VIII was an ally of William and an enemy to James; the Papal States were part of the Grand Alliance with a shared hostility to the catholic Louis XIV of France, who at the time was attempting to establish dominance in Europe and to whom James was an ally.[4]

King Charles II 1691 Antonio Pignatelli elected as Pope Innocentius XII
1691 – Battle of Aughrim (Aghrim) Ireland, William III beats James II
1700 Gelderland accepts Gregorian calendar; yesterday is June 30, 1700
1704 Stanislaw Leszcynski becomes king of part of Poland
1730 Lorenzo Corsini chosen as Pope Clemens XII
1745 Warship Elisabeth joins Bonnie Prince Charlie’s frigate Doutelle [NS]
1771 James Cook sails Endeavour back to Downs England

Penn, pass a declaration of independence
1774 – Cossack leader Emilian Pugachevs army occupies Kazan
1776 Captain Cook departs with Resolution for 3rd trip to Pacific Ocean
1785 1st manned flight by gas balloon in Netherlands
1801 Battle at Algeciras: British fleet beats French & Spanish
1st US Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton

1st US Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton 1804 Former United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton dies after being shot in a duel.
1812 US forces led by Gen Hull invade Canada (War of 1812)
1817 1st flower show held (Dannybrook, County Cork, Ireland)
1817 – Karl Drais von Sauerbronn demonstrates bicycle course
1843 Mormon leader Joseph Smith says God allows polygamy
1850 Dutch 2nd Chamber accepts establishment of Provincial States
1859 Paper bag manufacturing machine patents by William Goodale, Mass
1862 Congress authorizes Medal of Honor
1862 – Federal troops occupy Helena Arkansas
1863 In New Zealand, British forces invade Waikato, home of the Maori King Movement, beginning a new phase of the wars between Maori and Colonial British
1874 Ontario Agricultural College founded
1874 – Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure “Gloria Scott” (BG)
Religious Leader Joseph Smith Jr

Religious Leader Joseph Smith Jr 1878 Fever epidemic in New Orleans begin, it will kill 4,500
1882 1st ocean pier in US completed, Washington, DC
1898 Jean-Baptiste Marchand hoists French flag in Fashoda Sudan
1900 114°F (46°C), Basin, Wyoming (state record)
1901 Cy Young wins his 300th game
1901 – Striking Canadian salmon fishermen on the Pacific coast, resentful of the nonunion Japanese who continue to fish, maroon and imprison 47
1901 – In Germany a group of 104 aristocrats present a deceleration against dueling, though the tradition will go on
1902 Australian parliament agrees to female suffrage
1902 – Arthur Balfour succeeds Lord Salisbury, who retired as Prime Minister on 11 July
1905 The British and Japanese renew their alliance (of January 1902)for 10 years and agree to provide mutual support if attacked by other power
MLB Pitcher Cy Young

MLB Pitcher Cy Young 1906 Alfred Dreyfus found innocent in France
1909 16th Amendment approved (power to tax incomes)
1912 1st foreign feature film exhibited in US-“Queen Elizabeth”-NYC
1913 150,000 Ulstermen gather and resolve to resist Irish Home Rule by force of arms; since the British Liberals have promised the Irish nationalists Home Rule, civil war appears imminent
1917 The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.
1918 Japanese battleship explodes in Bay of Tokayama, 500 killed
1920 Lithuania & USSR sign peace treaty, Lithuania becomes independent republic
1921 Babe Ruth sets record of 137 career home runs
1921 – Indians (9) & Yankees (7) combine for an AL record 16 doubles
Baseball Legend Babe Ruth

Baseball Legend Babe Ruth 1926 Guomindangleger draws against warlord Wu Peifu
1926 – Paavo Nurmi walks world record 4x1500m (16:26.2)
1927 Babe Ruth hits 30th of 60 HRs
1928 1st televised tennis match
1930 34th US Golf Open: Robert T “Bobby” Jones wins
1930 – Bradman out for 334 in Test Cricket at Headingley, 383 mins, 46 fours
1931 45,715 fans in 35,000 seat Sportsman Park St Louis, help cause many ground ruled doubles, 11 in 1st game & 21 in 2nd game for 32
1932 Hedley Verity establishes a first-class cricket record by taking all ten wickets for only ten runs against Nottinghamshire on a pitch affected by a storm
1933 Congress passes 1st minimum wage law (33 cents per hour)
1934 US Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz Island abandoned
Cricket Legend Donald Bradman

Cricket Legend Donald Bradman 1934 – Willy de Supervise swims world record 400m (5:16.0)
1935 Belgium recognizes Soviet Union
1937 -13) Tupolev ANT-25 non-stop flight Moscow to San Jacinto Calif
1943 Battle of Kolombangara (2nd battle of Gulf of Kula)
1943 – National Committee Freies Deutschland forms
1943 – Pope Pius XII receives German ambassador baron von Weizsacker
1943 – Russian offensive at Orel
1943 – WWII: Battle of Prokhorovka – Russians defeat German forces in one of the largest ever tank battles
1944 Theresienstadt Family camp disbands, with 4,000 people gased
1944 – US government recognizes authority of General De Gaulle
1945 Cubs stop Braves Tommy Holmes modern-day NL hitting streak at 37 games
1946 Benjamin Britten’s “Rape of Lucretia” premieres in Glyndebourne
1946 – Vance Dinges hits only Phillie pinch hit inside-the-park HR
1948 1st jets to fly across Atlantic (6 RAF de Havilland Vampires)
1949 16th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 11-7 at Ebbets Field, Brooklyn
1949 – Baseball owners agree to erect warning paths before each fence
1949 – Dutch KLM Constellation crashes near Bombay, 45 die
1949 – LA Rams sign Norm Van Brocklin
1950 ILTF re-admit Germany & Japan in Davis Cup, Poland & Hungary withdraws
1950 – Hague Council of Annulment convicts German war criminals W Lages, FH Van de Funten & F Fischer to death
1951 Mob tries to keep black family from moving into all-white Cicero Ill
1951 – NY Yankees Allie Reynolds no-hits Cleve Indians, 8-0
1952 East German SED decides to form German DR army
1953 KTVB TV channel 7 in Boise, ID (NBC/ABC) begins broadcasting
1954 Major League Baseball Players Association founded
34th US President & WWII General Dwight D. Eisenhower

34th US President & WWII General Dwight D. Eisenhower 1954 – President Eisenhower put forward a plan for an interstate highway system
1954 – ANC President Albert Luthuli banned by South African Minister of Justice from attending public gatherings and confined to the magisterial district of Lower Tugela, Natal
1955 22nd All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 6-5 in 12 at County Stad, Milw
1955 – Christian Democratic Party forms in Argentina
1957 1st President to fly in helicopter-Dwight Eisenhower
1957 – US Surgeon Gen Leroy Burney connects smoking with lung cancer
1958 “Li’l Abner” closes at St James Theater NYC after 693 performances
1958 – US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island
1959 NBC uses cameras to show catchers signals during ankee-Red Sox game

1960 Congo, Chad & Central African Republic declare independence
1960 – Echo I, 1st passive satellite launched
1960 – Joyce Ziske wins LPGA Hoosier Celebrity Golf Tournament
1960 – USSR’s Sputnik 5 launched with 2 dogs
1960 – XEWT TV channel 12 in Tijuana-San Diego, CA (IND) begins broadcasting
1960 – Orlyonok, the main Young Pioneer camp of the Russian SFSR, is founded.
1962 1st time 2 manned crafts in space (USSR)
1962 – Rolling Stones 1st performance (Marquee Club, London)
1964 19th US Women’s Open Golf Championship won by Mickey Wright
1966 10.51″ (26.70 cm) of rainfall, Sandusky Ohio (state record)
1966 – 37th All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 2-1 in 10 at Busch Stad, St Louis
1966 – All star MVP: Brooks Robinson (Balt Orioles)
1966 – Race riot in Chicago
1966 – US Treasury announces it will buy mutilated silver coins at silver bullion price at Philadelphia & Denver mints
1967 23 die in Newark race riot
LPGA Golfer Mickey Wright

LPGA Golfer Mickey Wright 1967 – 5th Mayor’s Trophy Game, Mets beat Yanks 4-0
1967 – Blacks in Newark, riot, 26 killed, 1500 injured & over 1000 arrested
1967 – Greek regime deprives 480 Greeks of their citizenship
1968 Couve de Murville forms government in France
1968 – USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1969 98th British Golf Open: Tony Jacklin shoots a 280 at Royal Lytham
1969 – As the ‘marching season’ reaches its height there is serious rioting in Derry, Belfast and Dungiven; many familles in Belfast are forced to move from their homes
1970 Thor Heyerdahl crosses Atlantic on raft Ra II, arrives in Barbados from Morocco in 57 days
1970 – 99th British Golf Open: Jack Nicklaus shoots a 283 at St Andrews
1970 – Blues-Rock singer Janis Joplin debuts in Kentucky
Singer Janis Joplin

Singer Janis Joplin 1970 – Tanzania signs contract with China for building Tanzam-railway
1971 Juan Corona, indicted for 25 murders
1972 Democrats nominated George McGovern for president in Miami Fla
1972 – Twelve years after the banning of the ANC and Pan Africanist Congress, a new political movement, the Black People Convention is formed after a three day long conference in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
1973 A fire destroys the entire 6th floor of the National Personnel Records Center of the United States.
1974 John Ehrlichman convicted of violating Daniel Ellsberg’s rights
1975 104th British Golf Open: Tom Watson shoots a 279 at Carnoustie
1975 – Bob Taylor catches 7 in an innings, Derbyshire v Yorkshire
1975 – Sao Tomé e Príncipe gains independence from Portugal (Natl Day)
1976 Ian Dury & Kilburns disband
Golfer Tom Watson

Golfer Tom Watson 1977 John Edrich scores his 100th 100, Surrey v Derbyshire at The Oval
1978 Sun Bank Building opens
1978 – US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1979 Ian Palce joins Whitesnake
1979 – Kiribati (formerly Gilbert Islands) declares independence from UK
1979 – “Disco Demolition Night” at Comiskey Park, causes fans to go wild & causes White Sox to forfeit 2nd game of a doubleheader to Tigers
1981 Debbie Austin wins LPGA Mayflower Golf Classic
1982 Britain announces it is returning 593 Argentine POWs
1982 – FEMA promises survivors of a nuclear war will get their mail
1983 Chad government troops reconquer Abéché
1984 Geraldine Ferraro, NY becomes 1st woman major-party VP candidate
1984 – A car bomb set off by the military wing of the ANC, explodes in Durban South Africa killing 5 and injuring 27 people
1985 “Singin’ in the Rain” opens at Gershwin Theater NYC for 367 perfs
US President & Actor Ronald Reagan

US President & Actor Ronald Reagan 1985 – Doctors discover a cancerous growth in President Reagan‘s colon
1985 – STS 51-F launch scrubbed at T -3s because of main engine shutdown
1987 15th du Maurier Golf Classic: Jody Rosenthal
1987 – 1st time in 20 years a delegation from USSR lands in Israel
1987 – 50 white South Africans meets ANCers in Dakar
1987 – 8th US Seniors Golf Open: Gary Player
1987 – Phillies Kent Tekulve pitches his 900th game in relief
1988 59th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 2-1 at Riverfront Stadium, Cin
1988 – All star MVP: Terry Steinbach (Oakland A’s)
1988 – Margo Adams alleges Red Sox Wade Bogg’s had an affair with her
1988 – USSR launches Phobos II for Martian orbit
1989 NY Yankee pitching great Ron Guidry retires (170-91 .651, 3.29 ERA)
1990 “Les Miserables,” opens at National Theatre, Washington
1990 – Boris Yeltsin quits Soviet Communist Party
Russian President Boris Yeltsin

Russian President Boris Yeltsin 1990 – Chicago White Sox Melido Perez no-hits Yankees 8-0 in a rain shortened 6 inning game at Yankee Stadium (7th no-hitter of 1990)
1990 – In Soweto, South Africa, Shanty town women strip to the waist and confront bulldozers sent by authorities to demolish their homes
1992 13th US Seniors Golf Open: Larry Laoretti
1992 – Axl Rose arrested on riot charges in St Louis of Jul 2, 1991 concert
1992 – Betsy King wins LPGA Phar-Mor in Youngstown Golf Tournament
1993 7.8 earthquake hits Hokkaido Japan, 160 killed
1993 – Andrew Lloyd Webber‘s musical “Sunset Promenade” opens in London
1993 – Don Imus begins broadcasting to Boston on WEEI (590 AM)
1994 65th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 7-8 at 3 Rivers Stad, Pitts
1994 – All star MVP: Fred McGriff (Atlanta Braves)
1994 – Nomination hearings for Steven Breyer for supreme court justice begins
1995 Enrique Iglesias releases his first album, “Enrique Iglesias”
MLB Center Fielder Kirby Puckett

MLB Center Fielder Kirby Puckett 1996 Kirby Puckett retires from Minnesota Twins
1996 – Michael Jordan signs a NBA contract for 1 year for $25 million
1996 – Start of 1st “Super 8’s” tournament in Kuala Lumpur
1997 Cubs play in their 5,000th consecutive gane with out being no-hit
1997 – Pirates Francisco Cordova & Ricardo Rincon no-hit Astros 3-0 in 10 inn
1998 FIFA World Cup: France beats Brazil 3-0 for football’s 16th World Cup in Saint-Denis (France’s 1st title)
1998 – Pres. Nelson Mandela accompanies Queen Elizabeth II on a coach drive through the streets of London
2005 76th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 7-5 at Comerica Park, Detroit
2006 Hezbollah initiates Operation True Promise.
2011 82nd All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 5-1 at Chase Field, Phoenix
2012 200 people are killed by the Syrian army in Tremseh
2012 – 90-155 people are killed after an oil tanker crashes and explodes in Okogbe, Rivers State, Nigeria
Anti-apartheid activist and South African President Nelson Mandela

Anti-apartheid activist and South African President Nelson Mandela 2013 8 people are killed after a commuter train derails in Paris
2013 – Malala Yousafzai addresses the United Nations and calls for worldwide access to education
2015 Dancing with the Stars pro dancer Lindsay Arnold (21) weds highschool sweetheart Samuel Lightner Cusick in Salt Lake City

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 – 100 of 202

1394 Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shogun (d. 1441)
1644 Arnold Moonen, Dutch vicar/literature (David’s holy saint graduals)
1675 Evaristo E Felice dall’ Abaco, Italian cellist/composer
1730 Josiah Wedgwood, England, pottery designer/manufacturer (Wedgwood)
1757 Christian Danner, composer
1794 Heinrich Christian Pander, Russian zoologist
1801 John Hill Hewitt, composer
1802 Charles-Louis Hanssens, composer
1803 Peter Chanel, French priest and saint (d. 1841)
1807 Silas Casey, Major General (Union volunteers), (d. 1882)
Naturalist/Pacifist Henry David Thoreau

Naturalist/Pacifist Henry David Thoreau (1817) 1817 Henry David Thoreau, Concord Mass, naturalist/pacifist (Walden Pond), (d. 1862)
1821 Cesare Dominiceti, composer
1821 – Daniel Harvey Hill, Lt Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1889)
1824 Eugène Boudin, French painter (d. 1898)
1828 Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Russian philosopher (d. 1889)
1840 Abraham Goldfaden, Eastern European Yiddish dramatist
1849 William Osler, Canada, physician/author (circulatory system)
1850 Otto Schoetensack, German anthropologist (d. 1912)
1852 Hipólito Yrigoyen, Buenos Aires, President of Argentina (1916-22, 1928-30) (d. 1933)
1854 George Eastman, Waterville New York, inventor (Kodak camera)
1861 Anton Stepanovich Arensky, composer
1863 Albert Calmette, French physician (d. 1933)
Founder of the Eastman Kodak Company George Eastman

Founder of the Eastman Kodak Company George Eastman (1854) 1863 – Paul Karl Ludwig Drude, German physicist (d. 1906)
1864 George Washington Carver, botanist (studied the peanut) [or Jan 10]
1868 Stefan George, Germany, lyric poet (Algabal)
1870 Louis II of Monaco (d. 1949)
1876 Max Jacob, French poet (d. 1944)
1880 Tod Browning, American film director (d. 1962)
1881 Ludwig Rubiner, writer [or June 12]
1884 Louis B. Mayer, Dymer, Ukraine, American film producer and creator of the star system (MGM)
1884 – Amedeo Modigliani, Italy, painter/sculptor (Reclining Nude)
1884 – Joseph Crehan, actor (Charlie Chan-Meeting at Midnight), born in Baltimore, Maryland
1885 George Sainton Kaye Butterworth, composer
1886 Jean Hersholt, Copenhagen Denmark, actor (Men in White, Aryan)
1888 Tojohiko Kagawa, Japan, Christian-social reformer (Grain of Wheat)
1892 Bruno Schulz, Polish writer and painter (d. 1942)
1895 Kirsten Flagstad, Norwegian soprano (Wagner)
1895 – Oscar Hammerstein II, lyricist who worked with Richard Rodgers, born in NYC, New York
1895 – R Buckminster Fuller, architect/inventor (geodesic dome)
1900 Fjodor Godunov-Tcherdynchev, Russian poet (Life of Tchernyshevsky)
1901 Robert Allenby, Australian golfer, born in Melbourne, Victoria
1902 Gunther Anders, writer
Poet Pablo Neruda

Poet Pablo Neruda (1904) 1904 Pablo Neruda, Chile, poet (Residence on Earth-Nobel 1971)
1905 John C F, son of English King George V
1908 Alain Cuny, actor (Detective, Weite Land, Emmanuelle)
1908 – Ernest Burnelle, Belgian politician
1908 – Johan Franco, composer
1908 – Milton Berle, Harlem comedian (Uncle Miltie, Mr Television), born in NYC, New York
1909 2nd viscount Camrose, British Conserv Lower house leader (1941-45)
1909 – Joey Faye, comedian (Joey Faye’s Follies), born in NYC, New York
1909 – Souphanouvong, [Red Prince], president of Laos (1975-87)
1909 – Curly Joe DeRita, American actor and comedian (d. 1993)
1909 – Fritz Leonhardt, German civil engineer (d. 1999)
1911 Johanna Moosdorf, writer
1912 Broderick Vernon Chinnery-Haldane, photographer
1913 Willis Lamb, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2008)
1915 Michael Fenton Haddon, mining engineer
1917 Andrew Wyeth, Chadds Ford Pa, painter (Christina’s World)
1919 Vera Hruba Ralston, Prague Czech, actress (Dajkota) [or 6/12/1921]
1920 Honoré Desmond Sharrer, West Point New York, American artist
1920 – Keith Andes, Ocean City NJ, actor (Farmer’s Daughter, Away All Boats)
1920 – Paul Foster, singer
1920 – Beah Richards, American actress (d. 2000)
Author Pierre Berton

Author Pierre Berton (1920) 1920 – Pierre Berton, Whitehorse Yukon, Canadian author (War of 1812)
1921 Trevor Illtyd Williams, scientific writer
1921 – Bob Fillion, French Canadian ice hockey player
1922 Clark MacGregor, politician (involved in Watergate)
1922 – James E[dwin] Gunn, US, sci-fi author (Station in Space, Immortal)
1922 – Mark O Hatfield, (Sen-R Oregon, 1967- )
1924 Jaap Geraedts, composer
1925 Roger Smith, CEO (General Motors)
1926 Beah Richards, Vicksburg MS, actress/playwright (Big Shot, Generation)
1927 Gualberto T Hernandez, perfect minister Neth Antilles
1928 Elias James Corey, American chemist, Nobel laureate
1929 Pavle Merku, composer
1930 Gordon Pinsent, Canadian actor, director, and writer
1931 Andre Laporte, Flemish composer
1931 – Bob Traxler, (Rep-D-MI, 1974- )
1931 – Lord Clinton, English large landowner/multi-millionaire
1932 Harold William Woolhouse, plant scientist
1932 – Otis Crandell Davis, Ala, 400m/4X400m relayer (Olympic-gold-1960)
1933 Donald E. Westlake, American author
1934 Van Cliburn Jr, [Harvey Lavan], La, pianist (Tchaikovsky 1958)
1935 Barrie Wilson, academic
1935 – Chris Burger, cricketer (South African batsman v Australia 1957-58)
1936 Jan Nemec, Prague Czech, director (Diamonds of the Night)
Actor/Comedian Bill Cosby

Actor/Comedian Bill Cosby (1937) 1937 Bill Cosby, Phila, actor/comedian (I Spy, Cosby, Leonard Part 6)
1937 – Mickey Edwards, (Rep-R-OK, 1977- )
1937 – Lionel Jospin, Prime Minister of France 1997-2002
1937 – Michel Louvain, French Canadian singer
1938 Mickey Stratton, Meriden Ct, softball catcher (Hall of Fame 1969)
1938 – Ron Fairly, American baseball player
1938 – Wieger Mensonides, Dutch swimmer
1938 – Eiko Ishioka, Tokyo, Japan, Costume Designer (Academy Award, Bram Stoker’s Dracula), (d. 2012)
1939 Phillip Adams, Australian broadcaster and journalist
1941 Joseph Whipp, American actor
1942 Richard Stoltzman, clarinetist (Tashi), born in Omaha, Nebraska
1942 – Billy Smith, Australian rugby league footballer
1943 Bruce Taylor, cricketer (big-hitting NZ all-rounder 1965-73)
Rock vocalist Christine McVie

Rock vocalist Christine McVie (1943) 1943 – Christine McVie, Lancashire, rock vocalist (Fleetwood Mac-Got A Hold on Me)

Famous Weddings

Weddings 1 – 9 of 9

1472 Richard Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester and later King of England, marries Anne Neville, daughter of the Earl of Warwick, in Westminster Abbey.
King of England Henry VIII

King of England Henry VIII (1543) 1543 England’s King Henry VIII weds Catherine Parr (6th & last wife)
1918 Artist Pablo Picasso (36) marries ballet dancer Olga Khokhlova (27)
1933 Fifth Greatest Male Star of All Time Fred Astaire (34) weds socialite Phyllis Livingston Potter (25)
1937 Explorer Jacques Cousteau (27) weds scuba diver Simone Melchior (18) at Saint-Louis-des-Invalides in Paris
1963 NFL coach Jimmy Johnson (19) weds Linda Kay Cooper
1998 “Dynasty” actress Catherine Oxenberg (36) weds “Chinatown” film producer Robert Evans (68) in Beverly Hills, California
2007 World’s tallest man who measures 7’9″ Bao Xishun (56) weds Xia Shujian (28) in a traditional Mongolian ceremony at the tomb of Kublai Khan in Beijing, China
2008 Black Eyed Peas rapper Taboo (32) weds fashion publicist Jaymie Dizon (29) at St. Andrews Catholic Church in Pasadena, California

Famous Deaths

Deaths 1 – 100 of 102

783 Bertha “with the great feet”, wife of French King Pippin III, dies
1073 Johannes Gualbertus, Italian monk/saint, dies
1429 John [Jean C] Gerson, Fren theologist (Theologica mystic), dies at 65
1441 Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shogun (b. 1394)
1450 Jack Cade, slain in a revolt against British King Henry VI
1536 Desiderius Erasmus, humanist/priest (Novum instrumentum omne), dies aged 69
1545 Maria Manuela van Portugal, niece of Spanish king Philip II, dies
Humanist and Theologian Erasmus

Humanist and Theologian Erasmus (1536) 1575 Renée/Renata de France, duchess of Ferara/daughter of Louis XII, dies
1584 Steven Borough, English explorer (b. 1525)
1633 Simon Besler, composer, dies at 49
1640 Henry Casimir I, count of Nassau-Dietz, dies
1664 Stefano della Bella, Italian printmaker (b. 1610)
1682 Jean Picard, French astronomer (b. 1620)
1693 John Ashby, English admiral
1712 Richard Cromwell, English Lord Protector (1658-59), dies at 85
1742 Evaristo EF dall’ Abaco, Ital cellist/composer, dies on 67th birthday
1749 Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois, Governor of New France
1773 Johann Joachim Quantz, German royal flautist/composer, dies at 76
1804 Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, killed by Vice President Aaron Burr in pistol duel near Weehawken
1839 Christian Traugott Tag, composer, dies at 62
1st US Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton

1st US Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton (1804) 1844 Charles-Louis Panckoucke, French publisher, dies at 63
1845 Henrik Wergeland, Norwegian author (b. 1808)
1849 Dolley Madison, 4th First Lady Of The United States (b. 1768)
1874 Fritz Reuter, writer, dies at 63
1882 Alfred Humphreys Pease, composer, dies at 44
1883 Hermann Zopff, composer, dies at 57
1897 Felix Godefroid, composer, dies at 78
1898 Paul Voulet, French captain/mass murderer in Senegal, dies
1899 Esquire Mauritius A de Savornin Lohman, gov of Suriname, dies at 67
1902 Pieter Caland, Dutch hydraulic engineer (New Waterway), dies at 74
1906 Henrique Alves de Mesquita, composer, dies at 70
1910 Charles Stewart Rolls, British engineer and aviator (b. 1887)
1916 Aritius S Talma, Dutch minister of Agriculture, dies at 52
1917 Fournier, Swiss/French postage stamp merchant/forger, dies
1918 Dragutin Lerman, Croatian explorer (b. 1864)
1926 Charles Wood, composer, dies at 40
1929 Robert Henri, US painter (The Eight), dies at 63
1933 Willem H Drucker, lawyer, dies at 45
1934 Ole Evinrude, Norwegian-American inventor and industrialist (b. 1877)
1935 Alfred Dreyfus, French officier (Dreyfus Affair), dies
1945 Boris Galerkin, Russian mathematician (b. 1871)
1947 Jimmie Lunceford, American saxophonist and bandleader (b. 1902)
1949 Douglas Hyde, first President of Ireland (b. 1860)
1950 Elsie de Wolfe, American socialite and interior decorator (b. 1865)
1953 Joseph Jongen, Belgian composer, dies at 79
1953 – Marie-Alphonse-Nicolas-Joseph Jongen, composer, dies at 79
1956 Maurice Lippens, Belgian governor of Congo (1921-23), dies at 80
1961 Mazo de la Roche, Canadian author (b. 1879)
1962 Roger Wolfe Kahn, American band leader (b. 1907)
1964 William Solomon, South African cricketer (Test 1898-99), dies
1966 D T Suzuki, Zen Buddhism scholar, dies in Tokyo Japan at 96
1971 Yvon Robert, French Canadian professional wrestler (b. 1914)
1973 Lon Chaney Jr, actor (Wolfman), dies after long illness at 66
1976 Ted Mack, TV host (Original Amateur Hour), dies at 72
1977 Ed Holmes, actor (Growing Paynes, Once Upon a Tune), dies at 66
1977 – Frantisek Suchy, composer, dies at 75
1979 Kalervo Tuukkanen, composer, dies at 69
1979 – Minnie Ripperton, [Andrea Davis], singer (Lovin’ You), dies at 30
1980 John W Davis, Pres (WV State college), dies at 92
1981 Ben Seijes, historian (WW II), dies at 73
1982 Kenneth More, Brit actor (Genevieve), dies of Parkinson disease at 67
1983 Chris Wood, rocker (Traffic), dies at 39
1988 Joshua Logan, Broadway producer, dies at 79 of palsy
1988 – Raymond W Goldsmith, US economist, dies at 83
1990 Richard R Briggs, dies after short illness at 71
1990 – João Saldanha, Brazilian journalist and football manager (b. 1917)
1992 Albert Pierrepont, last British executioner (433 men/17 women), dies
1992 – Reginald Beck, English film editor (Robbery, Accident, Boom), dies
1993 Gusti Huber, Mother of Bibi Besch, dies of heart failure at 78
1993 – Lily van Lugt Melsert, actress (Tomorrow will be better), dies at 91
1993 – Dan Eldon, British photojournalist (b. 1970)
1994 David Malcolm Lewis, expert in Greek Epigraphy, dies at 56
1994 – Henk Terlingen, radio/TV-host (Sport in Image), dies at 52
1994 – James Bysse Joll, historian, dies at 76
1995 Alan David Marks, pianist/composer, dies at 49
1995 – Earl Coleman, singer, dies at 69
1995 – Ernie Furtado, bassist, dies at 72
1995 – Michael Clegg, naturalist/broadcaster, dies at 62
1996 Andrew Rodger Waterson, scholar Naturalist, dies at 84
1996 – Gottfried von Einem, composer, dies at 78
1996 – John Boon, publisher, dies at 79
1996 – John Chancellor, news anchor (VOA, NBC), dies at 68
1996 – John William Chancellor, journalist, dies at 68
1996 – Jonathan Melvoin, keyboardist (Smashing Pumpkins), dies of heorin OD
1996 – Nazar Mohammad, cricketer (Pakistan’s 1st five Tests 1952-53), dies
1996 – William Darling, journalist, dies at 73
1998 Serge Lemoyne, French Canadian artist (b. 1941)
1998 – Jimmy Driftwood, American folk songwriter and musician (b. 1907)
1999 Bill Owen, British actor (b. 1914)
2000 Charles Merritt, Canadian Army officer and recipient of the Victoria Cross during World War II (b. 1908)
2002 Edward Lee Howard, CIA Case Officer and alleged Soviet spy, dies at 50 after breaking his neck during a fall
2003 Benny Carter, American musician (b. 1907)
2004 Betty Oliphant, co-founder of National Ballet of Canada (b. 1918)
2005 John King, Baron King of Wartnaby, Chief executive of British Airways since its privitisation (b. 1917)
2007 Stan Zemanek, Australian radio personality (b.1947)
2007 – Mr. Butch, Iconic Boston street figure (b. 1951)
2007 – Robert Burås, Norwegian guitar player (b. 1975)
2008 Tony Snow, former speechwriter for Presidents George H.W. Bush and press secretary for George W. Bush (b. 1955)
2008 – Bobby Murcer, American baseball outfielder (NY Yankees, SF Giants and Chicago Cubs), dies from complications related to brain cancer at 62
2010 Harvey Pekar, American comic book writer (b. 1939)

 

Why Ireland split into the Republic of Ireland & Northern Ireland

Disclaimer – The views and opinions expressed in these documentary are soley intended to educate and provide background information to those interested in the Troubles of Northern Ireland. They in no way reflect my own opinions and I take no responsibility for any inaccuracies or factual errors.

A brief overview of the history of Ireland and the events that led to the political division of the island.

Including: the Norman and Tudor conquest of Ireland, the break away from the Roman Catholic Church, the Union of the Crowns, the various Irish Rebellions, Oliver Cromwell’s effect on Ireland, Irish joining the Union, the Irish War for Independence, the following Civil War, and the recent violence in Northern Ireland known as The Troubles.

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Why Ireland split into the Republic of Ireland & Northern Ireland

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The Siege Of Derry 1689 – What’s it all about?

– Disclaimer –

The views and opinions expressed in these documentaries are soley intended to educate and provide background information to those interested in the Troubles of Northern Ireland. They in no way reflect my own opinions and I take no responsibility for any inaccuracies or factual errors.

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Featured image

The Siege Of Derry 1689

A great documentary detailing the rebellion in which the citizens of Derry locked their king and his men out of the city in 1689, in support of the Dutch invasion of England.The great academic historians of this generation tell the story of Derry’s siege and related incidents.

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The Siege of Derry (Irish: Léigear Dhoire) involved a pre-emptive lockdown of the city gates in December 1688[1] and a violent defensive action lasting from 18 April to 28 July 1689, during the Williamite War in Ireland. The city, a Williamite stronghold, was besieged by a Jacobite army until it was relieved by Royal Navy ships. The siege is commemorated yearly in August by the Apprentice Boys of Derry.

The Siege of Derry

What’s it all about?

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In the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688, James II (King of England, Ireland and Scotland), a Roman Catholic convert, was ousted from power by his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. Most of the Irish population were Catholic, and James had given them some real concessions during his reign. He had made an Irish Catholic the Lord Deputy of Ireland (Richard Talbot), and re-admitted Catholics into the Irish Parliament, public office, and had replaced Protestant officers with Roman Catholic officers in the army. Irish Catholics also hoped that James would re-grant them their lands, which had been seized after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649–53). James thus looked to Ireland to muster support in re-gaining his kingdoms just as his father, Charles I had done in the Civil War of the 1640s.

Richard Talbot, who was acting as James’s viceroy in Ireland, was eager to ensure that all strongholds in the country were held by garrisons loyal to James. He focused on the northern province of Ulster, which had been the most heavily planted by British Protestant colonists.

By November 1688, Enniskillen and Derry were the two garrisons in Ulster that were not wholly loyal to James. The elderly Alexander MacDonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, was ordered to replace them with a more trustworthy force. He agreed, but wasted several weeks searching for men who were at least six feet tall. A force of about 1,200 Scottish Catholic “Redshanks” then set out for Derry. On 7 December, with the army a short distance away, thirteen apprentice boys seized the city keys and locked the gates.

On 10 December, King James fled London. He was caught, but fled a second time on 23 December and made his way to France. James’s first cousin, King Louis XIV of France, said he would help James regain power. In London on 13 February 1689, William and Mary were crowned.

On 12 March, James landed in Kinsale (on Ireland’s south coast) with 6000 French soldiers. He took Dublin and marched north with an army of Irish and French Catholics.

The Derry City Governor, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Lundy, turned away reinforcements led by Colonel Cunningham, which had arrived in the River Foyle, telling them that the city was to be surrendered.[2] He wrote on 15 April that “without an immediate supply of money and provisions this place must fall very soon into the enemy’s hands”. Lundy called a meeting with several of his most loyal supporters to discuss surrender. News of the meeting spread, angering many of the citizens. That night, Lundy (in disguise) and many others left the city and took ship to Scotland. The city’s defence was overseen by Major Henry Baker, Colonel Adam Murray, and Major George Walker (also an Anglican priest). Their slogan was “No Surrender”.[3]

As the Jacobite army neared, all the buildings outside the city walls were set alight by the defenders to prevent them being used as cover by the besiegers.

The Jacobite army reached Derry on 18 April. King James and his retinue rode to within 300 yards of Bishop’s Gate and demanded the surrender of the city. He was rebuffed with shouts of “No surrender!”, and some of the city’s defenders fired at him. According to a later account, one of the king’s aides-de-camp was killed by a shot from the city’s largest cannon which was called “Roaring Meg“.[4] James would ask thrice more, but was refused each time. This marked the beginning of the siege. Cannon and mortar fire were exchanged, and disease took hold within the city. James returned to Dublin and left his forces under the command of Richard Hamilton.

Royal Navy warships under Admiral Rooke arrived in Lough Foyle on 11 June, but initially declined to ram through the heavily defended defensive boom (floating barrier) across the River Foyle at Culmore. On 28 July, two armed merchant ships, Mountjoy and Phoenix, sailed toward the boom, protected by the frigate HMS Dartmouth under Captain John Leake. Mountjoy rammed and breached the boom at Culmore fort, and the ships moved in, unloading many tons of food to relieve the siege.[5]

The city had endured 105 days of siege during which some 8000[6][citation needed] people of a population of 30,000 were said to have died.

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